Ever wondered who ‘Louie Horrocks’ was?

 Over the years I’ve had a sort of hit and miss association with a small park in South Shore.  50 years ago, it was a venue for a walk and play with my kids. A place for them to play on the grass and a welcome change from being fastened into their prams. The Myna Birds providing an added distraction. Some years later, it was where my son hung out with his friends, with his bike, no doubt terrorising the park users with wheelies, and launching off a roof of a building in the park – I never asked!

Later, it was a place to take my Grandkids, by then a nice little park with a play area to match the needs of their ages. More recently, passing by on my Covid compliant exercise, on my bike or walking by.

The park, ‘Louie Horrocks Park’, on Lytham Road, South Shore. It’s a charming oasis off the main road, close to a built-up, busy shopping area, Primary Care Centre and a main road to the Beach from Marton Moss.

IMG_20210217_110342241_HDRaUntil recently, the name of the park never registered, other than when my lad told us where he was going. So, what or who was ‘Louie Horrocks’?

An information board in the park tells us that the Park ‘… resulted from a £10.000 bequest by one-time Bolton mill owner Mr James Walsh Horrocks, who retired to Blackpool and bequeathed the money for the development of a memorial to his daughter Louie, who died of Tuberculosis, as a child.’ 

The board goes on  ‘…On July 11th 1951 Louie Horrocks Recreation Ground was opened by the then Mayor, Councillor Joseph Hill  … the memorial would enable others to enjoy some of the healthy outdoor recreations that Louie Horrocks had not been able to enjoy.’ An account of her funeral, records that ‘for many years she was an invalid’.

James Walsh Horrocks had a story to his name. He was born in December 1862 in Bolton, Lancashire, to Elizabeth Walsh and Henry Horrocks. Census entries show an illustrious career for James, from Apprentice in a ‘Heald & Reed Manufacturer’, through ‘Travelling’ for the same business, to finally owning a business in Bolton, ‘J.W. Horrocks Ltd’. (Healds and Reeds are components of textile mill weaving machinery.)

James married Ada Louise Shepherd on 2 October 1890, at Park Street Methodist Church in Bolton. James was living in Blackburn Road, Bolton.

‘Louie’ was born in July 1893 in Bolton and at the time of her Christening, she and her parents were living in Pilkington Street. There are newspaper reports of her talent as a ‘Soloist’, probably a singer and dancer. When she was 5 she was praised for a performance at the Unity School Christmas Fair and Fundraiser. Again, at 13, she’s delighting crowds, dancing in a Dutch costume at a Victoria Hospital Fundraising event at the Winter Gardens.

The 1911 Census entry shows he and his wife, Ada Louisa and ‘Louie’ are living in Shaw Road, South Shore. ‘Louie’ is actually Alice Louisa Horrocks (17).  By 1939 James and Ada have moved to Broadway, South Shore.

In 1933, Louie married George Paton, a Journalist in Aberdeen. The wedding was reported to be a grand affair with many guests. She divorced him just a few years later.

Louie died in Aberdeen 1940, age 46, of Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Cardiac Failure. Her death and funeral were reported widely. The funeral was held at St Cuthbert’s in Lytham.

Ada Louisa died 26 August 1943, James on 30 July 1945, according to Probate Records, they were still living in Broadway. As well as bequests for the park, there were others to establish nine beds at Victoria Hospital, donations to Bolton Infirmary, the church where he was married, and St Cuthbert’s, Lytham.

James’ benevolence was challenged a few years after his death. He had included a bequest to all his employees with 10 years continuous service with J.W. Horrocks Ltd. However, in 1948 seven of those employees were denied the payment because their service had been interrupted by their war service. The issue was widely reported.

IMG_20210222_114156320_HDRThe name of Louie lives on with the Park. The family share an impressive family grave on the western edge of the St Cuthbert’s Burial Ground, in Lytham. Her father’s extended family are commemorated in Tonge Cemetery in Bolton.

Mike Coyle
Feb 2021

Sources

Images property of the author.  Newspaper reports via ‘British Newspaper Archive’ in absence of access to local Press, during lockdown.

Louie’s performances:
Bolton Evening News, 31/10/1898 &
Fleetwood Gazette, 12/04/1907

Louie’s Marriage:
Aberdeen Press & Journal, 25/04/1933, p4

Louie’s death and funeral:
Aberdeeen Press & Journal, 24/05/1940, p3

James’ Will details:
Liverpool Echo, 19/12/1945, p4 &
Belfast Telegraph, 04/11/1946, p3

Denial of payment to seven workers:
Manchester Evening News, 01/11/1948, p4  &
Liverpool Echo, 01/11/1948, p4

Census, Births, Marriages & Deaths via publicly accessible records online: FamilySearch; FreeBMD; LancsOPC; Ancestry; FindMyPast; ScotlandsPeople; 1939 Register via Ancestry; Assistance from Olive Thexton, Fylde Branch, Lancs Family History & Heraldry Society

The Blackpool Regiment: A Brief History Part 2: The ‘Capitulation’, capture, imprisonment, liberation, recovery, repatriation and reception of the Blackpool Regiment’s survivors.

Background to the Surrender

With the British engaged in a demanding war in Europe and North Africa,  France capitulation, Netherlands overrun,  Japan hungrily eyed the rich resources held by  British, French and Dutch in the Far East. Prior to the invasion, the new Prime Minister Gen Tojo, advise an Imperial Conference that Japan should go to war to preserve its empire and as a response to the embargo placed on oil imports, by the USA.

In spite of a perceived growing threat, the Governor of Singapore, Sir Shenton Thomas had been instructed to continue as ‘normal’, so as to maintain face and stability with the native population, made up of around 120,000 Thais and Chinese along with allied troops charged with the islands defence.

The Imperial Japanese Army (herein referred to as the IJA) invaded the Malay Peninsula on 7 December 1941, just a couple of hours before the attack on Pearl Harbour. They landed at Pantai Sabak, 10 miles from the RAF Airfield at Khota Baru, British Malaya, close to the Eastern border with Thailand and made rapid progress West and South. They crossed the Johore Straits on 7th Feb 1942. Despite fierce resistance by Australian and Indian troops (including the remnants of 137 Regt and 350 Battery), the IJA overran the island within 10 weeks of landing.

Singapore was never seen by Britain’s High Command as being threatened from the North. There was no effective plan for the defence of the island of Singapore. The jungles of the Malay Peninsula were thought to be impregnable, especially by tanks and artillery. Any attack was expected to be repelled at sea and as it landed – in Malaya! Attack via Thailand a neutral country was never envisaged. Defence was dependent on the presence of HMS ‘Repulse’ & HMS ‘Prince of Wales’, along with an allied air force of 335 aircraft, located mainly on the Peninsula. Reinforcement of the forces in Malaya & Singapore would take at least 3 months.

The largely unopposed landings and rapid dispersement from the Beachhead was facilitated by bicycles, using maps taken from school atlases. (Isaacs, 1973)

Island defences were directed seaward. Artillery was armed with Armoured piercing shells for repelling a Naval attack, not high explosives for a land-based attack. In any event, most of the guns were never intended to be turned inland. At the time of the surrender, the island was full of transiting troops; native and migrant civilians; colonial officers; civil servants and administrators, numbering over 100,000.

From the very beginning of the invasion of Malaya, and the collapse of the allied air force bombers were able to strike Singapore and did so with increasing intensity and accuracy. They were guided at night by the city lights that were never turned off, city officials, didn’t know how to! (Isaacs, 1973)

The Commander of Allied Forces in Singapore, General Arthur Percival surrendered the island to a relatively small IJA force on 15 Feb 1942. He did so in a confused meeting with General Yamashita at the Ford Motor Factory in Singapore. Confused because Yamashita didn’t realise Percival was surrendering. He only had 20,000 men on the island, Percival had 100,000. However, constant bombing and bombardment, low supplies and with reservoirs cut off, Percival sought to limit further civilian and military casualties. That day, Churchill declared ‘…It is a British and Imperial defeat. Singapore has fallen..’. He later regarded ‘The Fall of Singapore’ as ‘Shameful’, ‘the worst disaster’ and ‘the largest capitulation in British Military history’. A more detailed background to Japan’s entry into the war is widely available. New books testify to the renewed interest in the Fall of Singapore, its politics, its errors and its hero’s.

Following the Surrender, Japanese Newsreels would report and show Allied troops’ humiliation, by parading these ‘Mongrel Troops’, along the route through Singapore taken by General  Yamashita on his victory tour of the island.

The surviving men of what had been Blackpool Regiment, having been caught up in the events leading to the Surrender, found themselves disconnected from their Regiment, disarmed, bewildered and almost certainly angry that the fight was lost and there was nothing they could do about it. They would also be apprehensive about their treatment at the hands of the IJA. Little did they know!

Capture

The IJA military never committed to the 2nd Geneva Convention of 1922, which gave internationally agreed ‘rules’ for the treatment of Prisoners of War, although the Emperor, Hirohito, had agreed to its provisions. However, within the Japanese military, soldiers were treated harshly. Discipline was dispensed at all levels. A superior rank would think nothing of chastising a junior rank with a beating.

The ancient cultural code of Bushido (The Way of The Warrior), was a chivalrous code of behaviour for Samurai, the Japanese Warrior class. One of the code’s precepts included ‘mercy and benevolence’, which for PoWs, conflicted with another precept, that of ‘Honour’. The irrational fear of ‘disgrace’ in the face of the enemy was all consuming. Disgrace in surrender provided a fanatical driving force for Japanese soldiering.  These two features of Military life, disgrace and chastisement were to provide the framework for the treatment of PoWs under their control, throughout the war.

Having surrendered to a much smaller and inferior force (in terms of numbers, firepower and equipment), the allied armies captured in Singapore and Burma were regarded as detestable, disgraced and unworthy to be regarded as real soldiers. From the first day of the occupation the allies were reviled and consequently subject to humiliation, ridicule and poor treatment.  Following the Fall of Singapore, and the dishonour of lining the route of the IJA victory parade, the now captives were marched off to makeshift prison camps.

Round-Up & Incarceration

Since the collapse of the Blackpool Regiment  at Trolak, no records of 137 as a Unit exist, the rest of the story relies on experience of Coombes (1948) and ‘Chuck’ Jackson of 88 Regiment, the Blackpool man caught up in the next stage of the story. His diaries and documentary evidence provide valuable insights into the capture and treatment of our Blackpool boys; Cary Owtram’s account and  Leo Rawlings’ descriptions and drawings add authenticity and credibility.

The first instruction, when odds against the allies mounted on the island, was to destroy anything that might be of value to the enemy – materiel, weapons, equipment, vehicles & ammunition. The IJA surveyed all captured kit, repaired, reconditioned and recommissioned it. Amongst their star finds were 150 Field guns, including some of 137’s beloved ’25 Pounders’.

Some troops refused to accept the surrender and fought on for some days, others including the Australian General Gordon Bennett, attempted (and succeeded) escape. General Wavell had been withdrawn from the Island before the ‘Fall’. Others simply exhausted welcomed the end of hostilities.

On 16 Feb 1942, the IJA issued orders ‘..to concentrate all Allied PoWs in  Changi’.  Prior to the ‘Fall’, Changi was a complex of Barracks, Changi Gaol, civilian accommodation, offices and a small hospital. These were set on an area of land with three sides of sea and so easy to confine and contain the 80,000 or so prisoners. Initially, British Officers were left  alone to manage operations. Prior to his transfer to Manchuria, General Percival was keen to re-establish Regimental routine and discipline in Changi, much to the chagrin of many of the Australian and the few American troops. Later this was to become a bone of contention in the conduct of the Camps.

Owtram decribes attempting to gather up the men of 137 following the surrender. He then (along with Rawlings) goes on to decribe in detail the 12/14 mile march to Changi, without much water, some without shoes, but they marched as best they could through devastated villages and large numbers of dead soldiers and civilians, there was no time to clear casualties from where they lay.

The Regiment had managed to send kit and all the food they could muster in a truck allocated for the task. Initially, they were housed by the Allied High Command into Roberts Barracks, which was without light and water because it had been severely damaged by Jap bombers. After a few days they were moved to Changi Gaol. Owtram and other officers were allocated the relative luxury of the Gaol Governors House, affording use of the beach for bathing, until the Japs forbade it. The 330 men of 137 were then moved on to Birdwood Camp. Here they made gardens, played sports and held concerts and even had talks on Infantry Tactics and Jungle Warfare! For the first few months food was provided,on half rations, from that which was rescued at the Surrender, supplements by issues from the vast warehouses of European foods held in Singapore. Soon these were restricted in favour of an issue of rice from their captors. The rapid change in diet having a massive impact not just on physical well-being but on morale. Owtram suggests that a tin ‘Bully’ had to be shared by up to 40 men.

The first duties given to the allied prisoners was building the wire fencing surrounding the camp and clearing the streets and bombed sites of dead.

Once the Jap High Command realised they had an additional workforce of 100,000, The Allied Commanders were instructed to establish ‘Work Battalions’ of 500 men. Owtram describes attempting to keep 137 Regiment men together, he did so with the addition of 170 men from 80 Anti-Aircraft Regiment. This Battalion were sent to work, via Singapore in a truck, to Ban Pong in Siam (Thailand), some 1500 miles north, to work on road projects and what became known as the ‘Death Railway’.

The Camps

There are many accounts of life in camps for both civilians and the military controlled by the IJA.  Here we can only outline some of the key features of life for Prisoners, including those of 137 Regiment. The author had access to a detailed timeline of one man’s journey through capture and return from captivity. Although not a member of 137, he was a Blackpool man, a Gunner in 88 Regiment RA, 137’s  ‘Parent’ Regular unit. It records his time in camps throughout Thailand, working on the Death Railway and his return home. It is based on the scrapbooks, diaries and photographs he maintained. It provides a real insight into the life and repatriation of Far East Prisoners of War (FEPOWs).

Films like ‘King Rat’, ‘The Bridge on the River Kwai’ and ‘The Railwayman’ may give us an inkling of life in the camps. Whilst each dealt with the topic sympathetically, some aspects of the ‘Kwai’ film were roundly condemned by Blackpool FEPOW at their 1958 Conference, when it had been implied that Prisoners might have colluded with their captors in the building of the bridge, featured in the film. (Hack & Blackburn, 2007, p159).

Despite privations and deplorable conditions there are many memoirs, artefacts, artworks (including comedic caricatures and poetry) and accounts of resilience, if not resistance. Improvised musical instruments, concert programmes testify to prisoners making do and coping. The Imperial War Museum of the North holds collections of improvised musical instruments, medical equipment, games equipment, etc. as testament to prisoner’s ingenuity and resourcefulness

Medical conditions too, however appalling, were mitigated by ingenuity, courage and imagination. Parkes (2015) reports evidence of improvised equipment, facilities and medication from the meagre resources available.

The conquerors were unprepared for a large population of military and civilian prisoners. Buildings of all types were commandeered to provide secure accommodation: warehouses, schools, factories, Barracks, public buildings. 50,000+ Allied prisoners were crammed into buildings inadequate for the numbers. In one case, at Selerang Barracks, 15,000+ prisoners were forced into accommodation for 1200. Next door, Changi, was built in 1936 to house 600 prisoners, held 3500 Civilians, including women and children. ‘Changi’ remains in the consciousness, although Selerang was the PoW prison.

As time passed, PoWs were moved to provide slave labour throughout the occupied territories, to work in factories, mines, industrial areas, and building airfields and the infamous Burma -Thailand and the lesser known ’Sumatra’ Railways. Many thousands died on the transport to these camps, either from malnutrition, poor treatment or by sinking of ships and air raids by Allied action. It’s estimated that some 18000 prisoners and forced labourers, died in sunken ships alone.

The camps were of distinct types: ‘Branch’, ‘Detached’ or ‘Despatched’.

Branch Camps were established and controlled by the IJA, who provided accommodation, clothing and food.  Detached or Despatched Camps were smaller Branch Camps, located in or close to factories or mines, in these the benefiting Company provided all, with JIA providing prisoners and military staff. Many well-known names feature in the list of those company’s benefiting from slave labour: Mitsubishi, Hitachi, Kawasaki, Nippon Steel, Matsui, etc. Many were pursued for compensation by American ex PoWs in the 1990s.

Camps were not subject to a common regime and local Commanders held great power. Experience of prisoners varied greatly, but none of it good. Rules and regulations were enacted but were routinely ignored. The Japanese Navy insisted on interrogating Allied Pilots prior to internment, to improve military intelligence and consequently established its own camps.

Blackpool Boys in Captivity

At the surrender, the remnants of the Regiment were now divided into three distinct groups: The ‘Casualties’, The ‘Remnants’ and 350 Battery. The Casualties comprised those men who had been lost in the jungle after the Slim River incident; the wounded left behind in the care of the IJA because they were too poorly to move; prisoners of the Japanese captured after Major Owtram as Officer Commanding 137, split the survivors into two groups at Slim River; those killed in action or died of wounds during the fighting and those who died at the hands of the IJAafter capture. The Remnants were those who, with Cary Owtram had made it to Singapore, joined 88 Regiment and as captives were now in Changi, but separated from their colleges in 350 Battery that had fought with 135 Regiment, right up to (and briefly after) the surrender.

Coombes, Battery Commander of 350 Battery, relates the story of how the remnants were finally linked up with 350 at Roberts Lines, Changi. He describes how Cary Owtram returned from a foraging trip to Singapore, with news that ‘the estranged Battery would be joining them’.  After welcoming cups of tea and a long rest they were now, at least in name, back as 137 Field Regiment RA. The following day, the Regiment was reorganised into just two Batteries, with two Troops each, with a reasonable structure of officers and NCOs.  Jobs details were circulated, to include fixing latrines, cook-houses and accommodation in the bomb damaged buildings.

After 2 days work and as the Boys were getting used to captivity they were ordered to move, along with all the Divisional Artillery units, directly into Changi Gaol, two miles up the road, leaving the good work done.

At that time the Gaol had been cleared of its civilian inmates and although conditions were stark, 137 moved in, established accommodation in the concrete housing blocks, including Sergeant’s and Officers Messes.

Coombes recalls ‘Days began to fall into a relentless parades, inspections, meals and leisure time’. This was until notice was given that another 2400 men were to join them in the same accommodation. They did so and in relatively quick time, normal service was resumed. Work parties were detailed to work inside and outside the confines of the Gaol. One detail was required to bury about 300 Chinese personnel that had been driven down to the sea and machine gunned on the beach, a task undertaken by Blackpool Boys. Another, later job was extracting boxes of gold bullion from a bank in Singapore, loading it onto a succession of lorries bound for the docks, there it was stacked by more of our boys, ready for dispatch to Tokyo. Coombes later discovered from an English Bank worker that the cases of ‘bullion’, were actually coins and bank notes since the bullion had been liberated and sent to Australia before the Surrender.

Initially, life in the camps was fairly leisurely. Generally the Camp was unguarded, with men of the Regiment taking their turn as sentries, mainly to discourage absconders and foragers.  Coombes says that contact with their captors was minimal. Senior allied officers were briefed each morning about work that needed to be undertaken and these instructions were relayed in the Part One Orders to the men and NCOs to carry out, as would be the case in any other circumstances. One such order required Officers to relinquish their badges of rank, displaying only one ‘Pip’ on their left breast pocket. Another demanded that all IJA soldiers (and later the Korean Guards) to be saluted, regardless of rank.

Food was still in reasonable supply but water was rationed to one bottle per man per day for washing, shaving and drinking, the water being collected off site in a water truck that had to be manually pushed by the men, because no fuel was allowed to be used.

Within the next three weeks, another move was to be made, as the numbers of Allied troops were corralled into the Changi area. This time it was to Birdwood Camp, following the move the men were required to ‘Wire themselves in’, to create the wire fence that would constrain them while they were there.  Whilst here, it became necessary to run foraging trips into the surrounding jungle to collect berries, leaves and roots to supplement the ever reducing diet. Eventually, the IJA appointed Sikhs to guard and patrol the compounds to restrict movement. These weren’t just any sikhs, they were recruited by the IJA into the Free Indian Army, by selling the promise of liberation from the shackles of Britain, their homeland of India. Many thousands of Indian Troops fell for the dream and switched sides, even in the midst of battle. They would be disappointed!

During the time at Birdwood, work details were of two sorts: the normal activities of work that may mean working for the day and returning to the camp at night after work and that which required a more long term arrangement; perhaps in Singapore or other parts of the island where prisoners were away from Changi and away longer term, salvaging vehicles left in the rapid departure from the city, building roads, repairing airfields, working on the docks, ant the like. Coombes declares that by mid May upto 10,000 allied prisoners were living in Singapore and its environs. He goes on to say that about half of 137 were working at Kranji 23 miles from Changi, on roads and building a war memorial to the Japanese war dead.

Life in the Camps

Accounts of treatment by IJA Guards in the camps are available from sources, including the National Archive, many also reported in the trials of IJA Officers. Local survivors put pen to paper, or at least maintained a record of events at great risk. Among them was Leo Rawlings, who joined 137 at the outbreak of War and was captured at the Surrender, spending three and a half years in jail, some of that in the notorious Changi complex.

More recently in 2017 the diaries were published of Cary Owtram, formally Major in 137, later ‘Promoted in the Field’ to Colonel, commanding the PoW Camp at Chungkai, one of the largest, with over 10,000 prisoners. His account provides a vital insight in to how the now fragmented 137 Regiment merged into an amorphous mass of beleaguered inmates; how he managed both personally and professionally to cope with capture, transportation, imprisonment, eventual release and return home. Others include Ian Mitchell (1996) who settled in Blackpool after the war and the detailed accounts from Col Phil Toosey (in Summers, 2005).

For many, liberation from IJA tyranny was not the end of the story. Physical and mental effects of captivity and deprivation left deep scars

Those prisoners who managed to keep diaries of their imprisonment, risking torture and certain death by doing so. They used scraps of paper, tree bark, charcoal anything to write with and write on. Ink was made from blood, pigment from earth or berries. Leo Rawlings managed it, as did Cary Owtram. An excellent, detailed and personal account of the move to Changi, life in the camp where he was imprisoned, the Surrender and the journey home is given by Brigadier EW Goodman DSO MC, Brigadier Royal Artillery, Malaya Command 1941 – 1942, (See references) although from a senior Officers perspective; Parkes (2002 & 2003) also provide Officers experiences. Some prisoners managed to maintain, large quantities of documentary material: details of payments made and due; planned journeys to be taken when released; play scripts & songs; dishes missed as a prisoner and many, many more.

Life in the camps was hard, especially in those camps made ready at short notice and in times of shortage, even for the IJA. Open latrines, inadequate washing facilities, negligible medical supplies and facilities and food.  Prisoners of all ranks were forced to work. In some more established camps Prisoners were paid for the work they did and were occasionally able to buy minor comforts, at the camp canteens in nearby villages and transported them under close guard. Pay was not in cash but in a sort of Credit account with cash only being given for purchases outside the camp. Most Prisoners were not paid in any form. The Japanese view was that the prisoners had the opportunity to redeem themselves by working for the Divine Emperor.

Those who were paid, were able to enhance their diet, marginally from local purchases. Pay was around 60 Cents a week, paid on the basis of no work, no pay. That left those who were unable to work, without any supplementary food. Officers who were paid had a levy on their pay of around 30% to contribute to hospital drugs and food for the hospitals. Toosey records that officers were paid at the same rate as their  IJA counterparts. The money being paid to him each week and distributed by him and his officers. Rates varied, around 30 Cents (US) a day for NCOs, 25 Cents for ORs, probably enough to buy 20 cigarettes and a couple of duck eggs.

Hospitals too were in short supply of drugs, dressings and equipment, occasionally the ‘Detached’, Company camps had basic medical facilities, although Prisoners in homeland Japan had 2 PoW Hospitals treating seriously ill patients. Alternatively, Army Hospitals were used.  Camps in outlying areas had no facilities other that what Prisoners managed to provide for themselves. Cary Outram i/c 137 Regt., was appointed SBO at Chunkai, which later became a ‘Hospital’ camp. Toosey makes reference to the efficiency and effectiveness of the Chunkai Camp. The highly regarded Major Eddie Gill, also of 137 was running Nong Pladuk Camp, from Autumn of 1942 until Toosey arrived there in December 1943.

In the well established camps, thing were a little more organised, there are reports and artefacts relating to theatre productions, and educational courses and talks. Like PoWs anywhere, the greatest feature was lack of contact with home.

DSC08991

Pre-printed card

Communication with home was at best occasional. In the larger, better organised camps, the IJA provided pre-printed cards to send home with very rudimentary information, but at least it was something. Incoming and outgoing post, via the Red Cross, on the other hand was to say the least sporadic. Prisoner Charles Jackson received four in three and a half years, taking up to 6 months to be delivered either way. Contact, at heavy expense was also available via local population, where that was possible. On liberation, telegrams enabled home contact, although demands on the service were very heavy and infrastructure for sending and receiving somewhat unreliable.

Slide2

Headlines in the Gazette,  Christmas 1943

Jacksons Diary records the Cards sent home, (probably pre-printed with bare information), as follows,  Cards sent: July ‘42; Nov ‘42; May ‘43; Oct ‘43; Jan ‘44; Jun ‘44
Jan ‘45 (25 Words)

Generally, the regime in the camps was harsh, with frequent beatings and punishments for minor infractions of rules and summary justice for more significant crimes – stealing food or attempting to escape. Very few escapes have been recorded. Prisoners could be relocated without notice, being moved on foot, by train or ship.

It’s estimated that around 10% of the camps population died as a result of neglect, ill treatment, injury, malnutrition and disease, with the number increasing to almost 30% for those working on the Burma Thailand Railway. In addition, many died in Allied air raids and sinking of the prisoner transport ships. Sometimes planes crashed and there were cases of suicide, as well as ill health on the ships home.  Parkes also draws attention to the PoWs working near the sites of the Atom Bomb blasts, particularly at Nagasaki where 350 were based, in work camps and a mine close by. At least 80 were killed by the blast.

Changi Jail

Individuals and remnants of units arrived in Singapore in three distinct ways: those who were captured during the battles in and during the retreat from the Malay Peninsula; those who avoided capture and made their way to ‘safety’ by any means and those who fought a rear-guard action, in formed units, all the way to the island. Some elements of the Blackpool Regiment and 88 Regt were in this latter group, eventually taking up positions close to the famous Raffles Hotel and the Governor’s residence and later right on to the Southern Beaches, with their backs to the sea. They did so as ‘remnants’, with the men, artillery and ammunition they could transport in the ramshackle remains of the Batteries. They fought valiantly but in vain. Parkes and others report the surrender as ‘a shock’, even though inevitable in the face of what was perceived overwhelming force. The reality was the Garrison island housed up to 100,000 allied troops, and it was overwhelmed by 20,000 enemy.

As the IJA tried to manage the administration of so many prisoners, Changi was commandeered to house them. The Changi Garrison complex was the principal location for allied prisoners on the island, providing a heavily fortified, coastal defence base, which included the British Barracks at Selarang, just a mile or so away from Changi. The complex also included Roberts Barracks which housed a hospital.

Selerang was the site of a well-documented incident, in August 1942, when the British and Australian prison population of the Changi complex were assembled in the parade square, where they were held for 5 days with little water and sanitation. Four prisoners had escaped, and the IJA commanders insisted that the prisons population sign non-escape declarations. The 4 recaptures were executed, which only stiffened the resolve of the rest. However, illness, weakness and disease and the threat of adding the patients from the nearby hospital to the numbers in the Square, finally forced the signatures and the men were allowed back to threadbare accommodation.

Rawlings suggests that Changi was regarded as ‘luxurious’, when compared to some of the ‘Up Country’ camps. Abuse, beatings and malnutrition, bad accommodation and facilities were the norm of course. However, attempts to normalise conditions, through team games, concert shows, improvised medical facilities and a sort of Regimental regime tended to justify the term ‘Luxurious’.  Certainly, these luxuries were not afforded in the camps on the mainland and within the Japanese held territories. Indeed, the Regimental regimes there tended to include comprehensive admin and disciplinary arrangements, much to the chagrin of those who had experienced the harsh realities of other camps. After a few months the Changi complex became a sort of clearing house or distribution centre for the allocation of slave labour to the Singapore Docks, Sandakan Airfield and other infrastructure projects throughout the emerging Japanese industrial empire, including the notorious Thai-Burma railway.

Rawlings was in fact scathing in his accounts of the prisoners who were sent to work on the railway and those, mainly Officers, who stayed behind in the relative luxury of Changi and who failed to understand the treatment meted out in the Up-Country camps.

Food and Diet

Initially, Owtram, Coombes, Gill & Co. had managed to secure stocks of food, particularly tinned and dried food from the Godowns and warehouses, during the chaos of the time prior to during and shortly after the surrender. They had also managed to transport as much as they could, ahead of their march to to Roberts Lines. Once feeding arrangements had been sorted and the attached RASC and Regimental Cooks had worked their magic establishing cook-houses and messing for Officers, Sergeants and ORs, feeding was back into a normal, if highly rationed and controlled way. This luxury was not to last; protracted captivity and a constantly shifting tide of prisoners and an indifferent and unsympathetic IJA host would see to that.

Coombes (1948) gives us the clearest account of state of prisoner feeding, particularly in the earlier days in Changi. He recalls the supplementation of food grown in constructed kitchen gardens and that which was foraged. Some food was bought by the men, when they could, on the ‘Black Market’ at outrageous prices, sometimes subsidised from Mess funds or the PRI. Indeed arrangements were put in place to tax the pay of those who were working at a rate of up to 30% to pay for food essentials and little luxuries, like chocolate. Foraging parties were allowed to roam in the environs of the camp, until the camp was wired off. Trade through the wire, with locals and the Black Market seems impressive. During April and May, 1942, Coombes recounts 300 tins of Sardines, 200 tins of Jam, half a ton of vegetables and 400 Coconuts.

In terms of official food deliveries, The Jap authorities provided rice, flour, tea, sugar, milk, meat, salt, fat and occasional wheat, every 15 days, although the amount delivered equated to a single meal per man. The haul of tinned food liberated from the Singapore warehouses, and stored in Changi, prior to and just after the ‘Surrender’, was estimated to last about 80 days only.

According to Coombes, catering was supervised by a ‘Messing Officer’. Typical of the menu cycle was:

Breakfast – Boiled Rice, Fish Cake, Chauppatti and Tea
Tiffin – Boiled Rice, Soup or Sauce, or Rissoles of Beans or Fish, Sweet Rice Pudding, Tea
Supper – Stew or Meat Roll or Pastry or Meat Ball, Sweet Pastry – Biscuit, turnover or Boiled Dough & Sauce, Tea

By contrast, Toosey recalls an NCO of 135 Fd Regt’s description of the menu of 24 Feb 1942 in Changi:

Breakfast: 1 teaspoon of Sardine, 2 biscuits, 1 pint of tea.
Lunch: 1 pint of tea
Evening: Dessert spoon of stew, 3 biscuits, 1 pint of tea.

Later, the opportunities were greatly reduced. Rice became the staple food. Initially, it was an unfamiliar ingredient for the cooks who had to learn not just how to cook it but how to present it in forms acceptable to the men. Eventually rice would become the only food available and the calories it provided powered the back-breaking work the men undertook.

The same NCO recorded, in a letter to his wife, the following menu for the day:

Breakfast: Boiled rice, a spoon of milk, tea
Lunch: Boiled rice,mixed with tinned herring
Evening: Boiled rice and a little stew

The impact on the body of the inclusion of rice, raged from constant need to pee, to chronic diarrohea or constipation. It took weeks to adjust to the new diet.

With the financial supplements available, it’s also clear that the Officers Mess seemed to be able to pull all the stops out for Mess Dinners and for visiting Senior Officers, although sacrifices had to be made before and after, in order to provide for them. There is little reference to the catering for the ORs.

Coombes details the ‘Ration Scale’ at No1 Camp, Nong Pladuk & Ban Pong, June 1942, A base camp for work on the Thai-Burma Railway. (The Death Railway)..

Food Weight (gms) Calories
Rice 608 2027
Rice Flour 17 55
Tapioca Flour 16 18
Beef 35 60
Egg 11 20
Fish 9 10
Soya Beans 6 24
Peanuts 3 10
Sweet Potatoes 54 70
Pumpkin 36 4
Wax Gourd 17 2
Cucumber 8 1
Egg Plant 20 5
Greens 70 7
Onions 80 32
Chinese Radish 18 4
Coconut Oil 20 172
Sugar 16 64
Bean Shoots 80 16
Total 2601

Notes:

  1. From Coombes, 1948, p118.
  2. Amounts per man per day.
  3. Includes all preparation waste.
  4. Grams at 32 per oz.
  5. Work and heat requirement at least 2500 Cals per day.

The ‘V-Scheme’

Mention of the ‘V-Scheme’ here is apposite, it enabled several thousand more survivors than otherwise be the case. Both Toosey and Coombes make reference to the scheme in their writings.

The Camp Medical Officers were well used to managing patients with care and compassion, in the absence of drugs, dressings and equipment. Camp SBOs like Toosey and Gill had both introduced a levi on any earnings from work done for the IJA, although this only amounted to little, it was used mainly to supplement food and medicines for the sick, whose number increased dramatically in number as the years went on.

Cary Owtram at Chunkai, Toosey at Tamarkan and Coombes and Gill at Nong Pladuc all describe how, in 1943, they were told by an allied interpreter, that it would be possible to make contact with a Thai trader called Boon Pong, in Bangkok. He would be willing to supply food, medicines and equipment (albeit in relatively small quantities, given the size of the camps)) in return for a letter guaranteeing repayment after the war. A short time later Owtram describes taking possession of 10,000 Thai Dollars, in notes, to provide initial help.

The ‘V-Scheme’ involved establishing a trading link between the camps and interred ‘Ex-Pat’ civilians in the capital Bangkok. The plan was to smuggle goods in to the camp under the noses of the IJA. Payment for the goods, mainly bought locally, would come from the ‘Tax’ levied on working prisoners, from small personal donations and from loans provided ‘through the wire’.

The trade benefits were not only one way. Information about troop and rail movements; bomb damage; details of enemy and allied casualties; prisoner sickness and death statistics. All transactions done in complete secrecy, with only very few having any knowledge of the arrangements. Risk of discovery was all consuming, the penalty would be summary execution.

The numbers of sick and dying were becoming exponential, as numbers in the work camps  increased. Coombes provided meticulous reports and statistics. A sample is found at Annexe ‘A’.

The relationship with Boon Pong would last until the end of the war and after. He would undoubtedly save the lives of thousands of allied prisoners, including many Blackpool boys.

The Thai-Burma Railway

The building of the railway was to enable logistic support for the invasion of Burma. It was an extension of the existing line, proposed and surveyed by the British in the late 1880s. It was thought to be too difficult because of the jungle terrain. At its peak over 180,000 civilians and about 60,000 military personnel would be engaged in the construction, 90,000 civilians and 12,000 Allied PoWs would die too. The railway ran from Ban Pong, Thailand in the south to Thanbyuzayat in Burma at the northern end.

A great deal has been written about the ‘Death Railway’ and there is no intention to write further here, however, some of the statistics are stark!

  • 3m Cubic Metres of Rock moved
  • 4m Cubic Metres of Earthworks built
  • 650 Cubic Ft of Timber poles
  • 688 Bridges
  • 415 Km of track
  • Work Camps every 5/10 Km
IMG_20190606_144750200

From Mitchell 1996, p105

Work on the railway was undertaken by ‘Battalions’ or ‘Forces’ of around 600 men.  ‘Force B’ from Changi included men from both 137 & 88 Regiments. ‘Force A’ had been assigned to Airfield Construction. The camps rarely had accommodation, the men having to construct it before they started work on the line. On 27 May 1943, some of the Blackpool boys with Col Eddie Gill were sent north in a group of 200, via Kinsayok, a camp of 1300 (200 of them suffering from Dysentry). Coombes provides diary details of the appalling and rellentless treatment and conditions on those northern reaches of the railway.  A typical workday (including rainy season days) is recorded by Coombes, thus:  07.15 Reveille; 07.45 Breakfast ; 08.25 Parade; 08.50 March to Nong Pladuc; 09.45 Work starts; 14.00 Lunch; 15.00 – 18.30 Work; 19.00 March Back; 20.00 Supper; Lights Out (where there was some) 22.00.

At Nong Pladuk, SBO Col Eddie Gill was concerned about the growth of unfit, sick and injured prisoners being forced to work, the impact of poor diet and poor medical support and the multiplying events which sought to separate allied officers from their men. Remonstrations with the IJA officers at all levels resulted in the regular response:

‘ The railway will be completed by August, 1943, irrespective of the loss in life of Prisoners of War.’

As planned, by August 1943 work on the railway was complete. The inmates of Kinsayok were split into two groups, the sick and unfit with Eddie Gill to go south via Nong Pladuk to Chunkai. On their return they were back with the CO 137, Cary Owtram and Col Toosey. The fit went further North to provide maintenance gangs for the railway.

Early in the New Year of 1945, the PoWs learned that they were to be separated from their officers. The intention was to further break the spirit of the men, and the officers. Most (successfully, for the men) handed over authority to the RSMs and NCOs. Both Toosey and Owtram had been keen to maintain contact with their own regiments, looking after the interests of the men in their charge. Both record that moving out was a terrible wrench. They were sent via Nong Pladuk to Kanburi at the north end of the track, near the town of Kanchanaburi. The camps held around 3000 Allied officers.

 

Liberation, recovery, evacuation and repatriation

Coombes recounts being told of the Japanese surrender by Siamese civilians, on his way on a work party. On return to the Camp, the SBO Col Swinton was formally informed that the war was over, but that they must still regard themselves as prisoners until relieved by ‘his own people’. They must stay within the confines of the camp, because the Camp Commandant could not guarantee that all the outlying IJA troops were aware. Supplied were demanded and received, from warehouses that were stuffed full of Red Cross materiel sent to prisoners, but never distributed.

A few days later, representatives of RAPWI (Recovery Allied Prisoners of War and Internees) appeared to arrange repatriation.

Being told that the war was over, did not sit easily with prisoners. They had not dare believe any success stories heard from newly arrived prisoners, on illicit radios or from sympathetic Thais. One account recalls the suspicion held by the PoWs when men in green uniforms arrived in camp to inform them of their freedom and release. That suspicion eventually evaporating into uncontrolled joy by some and reflective silence by others, particularly for relatives and friends who had not survived.

The Japanese declared their intention to surrender on 10 September 1945. Toosey describes how, not until 17 August 1945, he heard the news and expressed his wish to rejoin the men of his Regiment he had left at Ubon. Cary Owtram, acting CO of 137, also sought assurance of the state of his own men. 234 Men had died, 71 of those in battle, the rest, 163, had died at the hands of the IJA, the remaining survivors were in various states of mental and physical health. The surviving 137 Regiment officers had been sent to Kanburi Camp, many the men distributed to camps along the route of the Thai-Burma railway.

Mitchell (1996) describes a typical reaction to an interruption during some community singing, being held in their camp at Tamuang : ‘.. two men appeared and strode to the front. They were dressed in green uniforms , one with a strange looking sub-machine gun, both with parachute emblems on their shirts, neither with any badge of rank. … Since the men did not know that the European war was over, had never seen Sten guns, nor British troops in green uniforms, nor British troops without badges of rank, nor knew of the formation of the parachute Regiment, …’

One of the two men was a Major, who explained the situation; The IJA guards had deserted their posts and fled the camp. They had been ‘shadowing’ the camp and waiting for the opportunity to move in for several days.

The Japanese surrender and pending liberation was a double-edged sword, freedom, yes but the real prospect of reprisals led to trepidation and an anxious wait until the arrival of Allied troops.

In 1943, the IJA High Command, through Commanding General of Military Police, issued orders to plan for the ‘Final Disposition of PoWs’, what was designated as ‘Document No. 2710’ of August 1st 1944. The methods to employ were included, under Section 2 of the Order:

  1. Whether they are destroyed individually or in groups, or however it is done, with mass bombing, poisonous smoke, poisons, drowning, decapitation, or what, dispose of them as the situation dictates.
  2. In any case it is the aim not to allow the escape of a single one, to annihilate them all, and not to leave any traces.

The document was used in the post war War-Crimes Trials. An official translation of Document 2701 below.

DSC01167

On 20 Aug 1945, following Surrender of Japanese forces, a further order was issued providing ‘authorization for Guards to flee because of mistreatment of POWs’  (National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), War Crimes, Japan, RG 24, Box 2011)

The initial declaration of the end of hostilities was made in Japan on August 15th, however, the formal signing of the Surrender document was not made until September 2nd.  We see later that some of the Blackpool boys, although liberated on 2nd of September, were not declared ‘No longer PoWs’ for several weeks or even months after. Finding and processing so many thousand prisoners on adding to the anguish at home.

Even from Dec 1942, efforts were under way by the International Red Cross (IRC) to locate PoW Camps in the Far East and those in the Japan mainland were also being sought, under the title of ‘Op Blacklist’. Few camps were liberated by Allied Troops, other than those discovered as occupied islands were liberated. On Surrender, many IJA  Guards simply melted into the surrounding countryside, abandoning their charges, some of the prisoners in the larger industrial concerns were wined and dined by their employers. Camps were sought mainly by air surveillance, which dropped much needed supplies when they were found. Others were well known, often by reputation! Special Forces, working alongside Thai and Chinese resistance were able to move quickly into camps. Some were too remote that news of the Surrender didn’t reach them for several weeks.

Efforts to provide supply drops of food and medicines by air continued, although Toosey describes a number of unwelcome drops of RICE! Sutcliffe’s diary records one air drop that killed a bullock and badly injured several men.

Meanwhile, preparations in the ‘known’ camps were being made to get the men back home. Time for some was used to update themselves; getting used to new, unfamiliar terms being used, like ‘D-Day’, ‘Bazooka’, ‘Atom Bomb’ or personalities ‘Ike’, ‘Slim’ and ‘Montgomery’.

Repatriation

For the Blackpool Regiment boys, Cary Owtram delayed his return home to locate and gather them in. Many were never to return, killed in action of dying at the hands of the IJA or as a result of disease, malnutrition or work accidents.

Prisoners were recovered and evacuated from the camps by all available means. All were medically assessed and encouraged to complete ‘Liberation Questionnaires’. Many did not complete them and most only the first page with basic information. The liberating authorities were dependent on covert admin records kept by PoWs. Official Japanese records were destroyed as camps were abandoned. Those unfit to travel were moved variously to Allied Hospital ships and Field Hospitals and clinics established by military medics.

Repatriation_Memorial,_Pier_Head

The Repatriation Memorial, Liverpool. (Courtesy Creative Commons)

Those well enough to travel immediately were assembled at Air Fields and Ports in preparation for the journey home. Many passed through ‘Repatriation Holding Units’ or Transit Camp like No 5 FARHU, getting kitted out with clothing as they did so.

From the British Government’s point of view the preferred means was by sea, allowing time for PoWs to put some weight on, improve medically and reduce the shock for those at home! On board, personnel were briefed not to dwell on their experience, on conditions at home and what they might expect when they arrived, bearing in mind that many had spent over 3 years without any contact from home. Similarly, families were told not to ask questions and just get on with life. Many arrived back in the UK without welcome or fanfare

The newly liberated PoWs were told in no uncertain terms that they were not to recount their experiences until after a debrief by the Intelligence Officers of ALFSEA (Allied Land Forces South East Asia) and production of a written statement. Statement were to be of dates and places of internment, treatment and personalities involved. Speculation as to their use in tracing Japanese Escapees and War Crimes Trials was rife, but unconfirmed.

Ships assembled for invasion of Malaya and Singapore in Op Zipper, were reassigned to move PoWs.  All UK airports and ports were pressed in to service to receive PoWs back home. Those from the NW including 137, came back mainly via Liverpool, landed and given rail passes to get them to their home town, arriving at the homes in what they stood up in and little else, often with bewilderment and disbelief.

About 37,500 FEPOWs (20,000 via Liverpool) came home to UK normally by sea, taking several weeks, giving time for the men and women the chance to adjust to their freedom and to recuperate physically and to some extent mentally, in preparation for questioning by families and officials back home. Many received instructions not to talk about their experiences to their families, because ‘they wouldn’t understand’. Many were in poor physical and mental state: tropical illnesses and infections, malnutrition, being amongst the most common. Whilst there was a network of military hospitals for each of the services, many had minimum capability and capacity to cope with numbers of referrals.

The Journey Home

Those for repatriation were transported from camps by plane and train and assembled at the ports in Rangoon and Singapore, bound by initially for Bombay to handover the sick to Indian hospitals or Colombo, where they first tasted real freedom – shore leave. Ships were met there with bands playing. Their journey would usually take them via the Suez Canal, the Mediterranean, past Sicily, Malta and Gibraltar through the Bay of Biscay and home.

The journey home by ship provided much rest, rehabilitation and respite from the rigours of the camps, new kit, good food. Sutcliffe recalls the kindness of the military and civilian staff manning the reception and movement centres allocated for handling repatriation and the taste of tea with milk and sugar, of real bread and the tinned apricots that seemed to be served everywhere at all times.

The journey provided time for joy and regret, for grieving and for longing. Longing for family, wives and for sweethearts and for wondering what life at home would be like, back in the company of loved ones, with the ghosts of the last three and a half years constantly close by.  Some were cheered by recollections of home, some with dread of what they might find – some expectations would be met and others dashed in the months to come.

Few flew to UK. Onward journey to home from the Ports, was normally by Travel Warrant by train, to be met, or not, at local stations.

To confuse things, Britain in October/November 1945 was in the middle of a strike by Dockers. 2000 Returnees were delayed at Rangoon’s ‘Epilogue Camp’ – No 5 FARHU (Forward Area Holding Reception Unit), wrote to the British Press and the Government to complain about the delays to the ships – the RMS ‘Alcantara’ and MV ‘Llangibby Castle’, likely to make them miss their first Christmas at home for many years. (Discussion at: ww2talk.com ‘Epilogue Camp, Rangoon, 1945′). They did so with full support of their Commanding Officer General Symes. Sutcliffe also comments with indignation, on the strike and its consequences for returning PoWs. He also criticises what he refers to as the ‘Gutter Press’ for their support of the action and the decay in life at home – reporting the strike, rationing, shortages and the like.

A typical journey home is covered fully in Lt Sutcliffe’s diary. Another, for one of the Blackpool men of 88 Fd Regt can be found in Annex ’B’.

Resettlement

The treatment of POWs differed between those from Europe, where there had been a declared victory and those from the FE where their capture was a result of capitulation. There were questions to be asked about how and why; as opposed to the questions from the European perspective which concentrated on what and who. The latter featured people, the former, circumstances.

Officially, PoWs were regarded as Casualties and as such should be expected to attend a ‘resettlement’ programme in order to rehabilitate them back into society. Early in 1945 a pilot ‘Civil Resettlement Unit’ (CRU) was established by the Army, in response to the increasing number of repatriates, either from escapes from captivity, or on medical grounds via the International Red Cross (IRC). By the end of 1945, a network of 20 residential CRU’s had been established. The four-week programme at these units, was designed to ‘re-socialise’ ex-prisoners and attend to their mental, physical and social wellbeing and help with employment, with in a safe and familiar military setting. In general, the CRUs were regarded as successful, judging by the number of attendees regarded as ‘Well adjusted’, suggesting a genuine benefit in the therapy given and received. Whether the families at home regarded the therapy as beneficial is not known.

cru leaflet

Extract from ‘The New Plan’ pamphlet, given to returning PoWs

Leading light in developing care for returning FEPOWs Brig Phillip Toosey CBE. As Lt Col he was CO 135 Fd Regt RA, the remnants of 137’s 350 Battery were allocated to his command on their return to Singapore. Toosey, a Wirral TA Officer was captured in Singapore and was SBO in the infamous Camp at Tamarkan (Tha Makhan, on the River Mae Klong), from where the Prisoners built and died working on what the film the ‘Bridge on the River Kwai’ was based.

Parks & Gill, (2014), describe how he helped FEPOWs obtain medical help after their return (no NHS at this time) and how he later established a close bond between them and the consultants working to help those with what was at the time TDI ‘Tropical Disease Investigations’ at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. It was a relationship that would last over six decades.

Parkes quotes Hately-Broad (2013) suggesting that the lack of information and a consistent policy looking after PoW’s families promoted fear, isolation and frustration for both PoW and their family. The Belfield Report of 1919 spelt out the importance of a rational, navigable and sympathetic support systems for serving soldier’s and PoW’s families, following the experiences in world War 1. However, nothing came of its recommendations, leaving families and PoWs in an information and support ‘Limbo’. Traditionally, Regiments generally carried the burden of supporting families of its servicemen. In the case of FEPOW many of those Regiments, like the ‘Blackpool Regiment’ just ceased to exist, in practical terms.

The Blackpool Experience

By the time of repatriation, more Blackpool boys had died in the camps than were Killed or ‘Died of Wounds’ in Action; more were to die of or with the physical and mental effects of their experiences, once they were home.

Lack of information and speculation played havoc with both authorities and families, A quick analysis of the Official Notifications to the families of the men’s capture, shows something of the anguish felt at home, not knowing if loved ones were dead or alive. Both fear and dread at the prospect of loss and then jubilation and thanksgiving for some.  A sample of three Blackpool men’s records illustrate the point:

Gunner Reginald Leonard ‘Reggie’ Dunne

15 Feb 1942       Reported ‘Missing’
05 Nov 1942       Reported as a PoW
02 Sep 1945       Liberated
10 Oct 1945        Declared ‘No Longer PoW’

I.e. 9 Months between notifications of being ‘Missing’ and being a PoW; then over a month between Liberation and being declared ‘No longer a PoW’

LBdr Charles William ‘Chuck’ Jackson

15 Feb 1942       Reported ‘Missing’
09 Jun 1943        Reported as a PoW
02 Sep 1945       Liberated
26 Oct 1945        Declared ‘No Longer a PoW’

I.e. 17 Months between notifications of being ‘Missing’ and being a PoW; then 2 months between Liberation and being declared ‘No longer a PoW’

Maj WE ‘Eddie’ Gill

15 Feb 1942       Reported ‘Missing’
23 Sep 1942       Reported as a PoW
02 Sep 1945       Liberated
14 Sep 1945       Declared ‘No longer a PoW’

I.e. Officers fared a little better – 7 Months between notifications of being ‘Missing’ and being a PoW; then just 12 Days between Liberation and being declared ‘No longer a PoW’

Because the Blackpool Regiment were distributed around the Japanese occupied territories, their experiences differed hugely. From September to December 1945, The Gazette was filled with reports of returning PoWs and accounts of their treatment.

About 500 Mums, wives and girlfriends attended a briefing at Blackpool Library, given by Professor BG Magrath, Principal of the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. The newspaper report headlined ‘HOW TO TREAT POWs BACK FROM THE FAR EAST’ suggested that they left ‘looking brighter’. The Professor gave them up beat advice on diet, ailments the men may suffer from and when and how to get medical help and advice. Finally, ‘Don’t let your man over eat!’.

Reception at home was mixed. One Mother meeting her son, said ‘At least you didn’t have to face the Blitz, like us!’, and another ‘Well you weren’t fighting for long!’. Families wanting to know why, how and what they’d been through; some accepting a quiet resignation not to speak about it. Other returnees eager to share experiences, not just with family, but with anyone eager to listen, including the Press. Local papers just as eager to tell tales of atrocities and of heroic deeds.

Adjusting must have been difficult in all cases. Rawlings describes how his family failed to understand or tolerate what was simply referred to as ‘Battle and Stress Fatigue’ and the role that alcohol played in offering brief spells of respite. He was clear that return to civilian life was too quick for ‘…sanity to establish itself decisively’.

Some consolation was garnered when the Blackpool Branches of Far East Prisoners of War Association and Burma Star Association were formed in the early 1950s, with several thousand founder members across the UK. Both provided opportunities for comradeship, collective memory and mutual support.

Free from captivity didn’t mean free from torment and ordeal. Feelings and emotions suppressed for years were now unleashed on families ill-equipped to cope or make sense of it. Families that had been advised not to talk about their experiences and not expect too much; Families that took second place to fellow PoWs. Families that despite the privations of war at home, knew absolutely nothing of what these shadows of their former selves had experienced. Families that couldn’t make sense of ‘new’ irrational behaviours. Behaviours that had maintained some kind of survival, sanity and normality in a captive, totally alien world. In the longer term, these men expected that, as time moved on the rest of the world would forget what they had been through. Adding to the mix of non-communication, returnees too had been instructed’ to ‘Guard your tongue’ in an official leaflet given to them on the way home.

GuardYrMouth2 (2)

The ‘Guard Your Tongue’ Leaflet

After varying times for recuperation and recovery, many went back to work. Work as therapy; Work as a distraction; work to earn a living. Some enlightened sympathetic employers held jobs open. Others made use of the facilities laid on by local and central government employment agencies.

Returning to work for some was relatively easy. Professional folk and some tradesmen found it easy and gratifying to slip back into work. Others, who may have lost skills over their captivity, or who had lost physical faculties, found it more difficult. Some of course would never be able to hold down a job ever again, helped only by the rehabilitation, benefit and therapeutic services on offer at the time. Senior Officers of local units, like Toosey, Owtram and Gill, appear to have played a crucial role in assisting returnees, either to therapy or into work. 137’s 2i/c Cary Outram’s family describe their fathers re-integration, following a long spell of paid leave: ‘…we were much impressed by the many responsibilities he was soon taking on..’, ‘…he kept in touch with other ex-prisoners, attending FEPOW Reunions in London.’

In June 2008, The Gazette reported the anniversary of ‘Eddie’ Gill’s death in 1968. One of 137’s Battery Commanders, launched himself into local service as a Councillor, and as a keen supporter of the military and service organisations in Blackpool, including FEPOW and the British Legion. Gunner ‘Reggie’ Dunne, whose brother Fred also a Gunner in 137, became a teacher of Science at John Vianney School. I remember him in the late 50s, with some affection as a tough, quiet and patient man who earned the respect of his pupils. He filled his days working with ex-POWs in several organisations including FEPOW. In a Gazette report on his funeral in 2003, is wife declared He made everyone have a laugh and got on with life. He spoke about being in the POW Camp but he always saw the good side, all the men had such great comradeship.’.

FEPOW & Burma Star Association

DSC09045The need for association with contemporaries and those who shared the experience of captivity in the Far East seemed strong. By 1946 the move from informal and local self-help groups was made to form National Association of  Far East Prisoners Of War Clubs and Associations in 1947. Not all the returnees engaged, Parkes & Gill suggest that about a third were involved, leaving the remainder, unsure or unwilling to share, talk and listen. Probably preferring to suppress dreadful memories. Initially, the ‘Returned British Prisoners of War Association’ attempted to deal with the men and women that had been through the Japanese experience. It was clear that the experiences of the German PoWs was a world away. The National Association of FEPOWs grew out of the differing set of needs. Toosey describes the most common symptoms suffered by the men and their families were ‘anxiety, restlessness and nightmares’.

The aim was to provide support for each other and their families, indeed ‘To keep the spirit that kept us going’.  Simply to be able to talk and listen, usually organised by the men themselves or former NCO’s. Officers were also welcome of course and some took on leading roles in the grown of what became a movement. As time moved on it was clear that health and welfare needs were beyond ‘helping each other’. In the North West, Philip Toosey, local business man and Banker provided enabling force to develop not just the FEPOW presence but also the early and  close collaboration between the Far East veterans and Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. Toosey, ex Senior British Officer in the Tamarkan Camp, later Knighted, worked tirelessly for the FEPOW cause until his death in1975, as did Col Eddie Gill and Cary Owtram.

In spite of dwindling numbers of members of FEPOW, the Children Of Far East Prisoners of War (COFEPOW), continue to perpetuate their memory and host research.

The Final Legacy

In 1946, the Commonwealth War Graves Commission (then the Imperial War Graves Commission) started gathering together the remains of those that had fallen on the island from the cemeteries at and around Changi and the rest of the island, mainly located at the sites of PoW Camps. Together with those in Thailand and Burma (now Myanmar). The legacy of those years of conflict and imprisonment is written in the names, accounts of the battles and prisons of those British, Commonwealth, American and Dutch who are commemorated there. To name a few: Kranji including Singapore commemorates 24,000; Rangoon, 27,000; Kanchanaburi, 5080; Thanbyuzat, 3150;

Kranji_War_Memorial,_Singapore

Kranji War Memorial, Singapore. (Courtesy Creative Commons)

Chunkai. 1420. Those numbers don’t include the civilians who died, fighting and suffering at the Singapore hands of the IJA. The Kranji Memorial includes memorials to ‘Unmaintainable Graves’ and one to ‘The Singapore Civil Hospital Graves Memorial’, remembering those who died and were buried in the grounds of the Hospital in such numbers ‘.. that burial in the normal manner was impossible. Before the war, an emergency water tank had been dug in the grounds of the hospital and this was used as a grave for more than 400 civilians and Commonwealth servicemen’ (CWGC).

The troops serving in the Far East regarded themselves as ‘The Forgotten Army’, we pray that the graves and memorials and sacrifices made by the Blackpool Regiment and all others, are never forgotten.

Epilogue

A cursory review of the Casualty List shows the Regiment was in action as soon as it arrived in Jitra in the north of Malaya. The War Diary records the losses objectively, dispassionately: ’23 Dec 41, …4 Killed, 6 Wounded, 2 vehicles destroyed…’. Like many others, our Regiment was made up of fit young men, average age 27, the youngest just 20 and judging the the men’s numbers, made up of both experienced and fresh and inexperienced, perhaps caught up in the recruitment frenzy in 1939.  Also interesting are the names shown as ‘Killed in Action’ long after the Surrender, as late as September and December 1944. Sad to read are the long list of those who died as Prisoners of War, especially those who died just before, during and just after ‘Liberation’.

For many years after the War, two major organisations held the stories of those who survived the retreat and surrender of Singapore, The Burma Star Association and the Far East Prisoners of War Association (FEPOW). Often those stories were only shared between those who had experienced it and the trauma of servitude under a brutal military regime. Certainly, the men who returned were mere shadows of themselves pre-War, both physically and mentally. A Regiment of fit young men launched into War as a new and inexperienced Regiment, established to fight at home, in defence of Britain. Many would have found the War exciting, challenging, then only to spend 3 years in a hellish prison, to die in squalor, illness and without mercy from their Captors.

Accounts of conditions and treatment in the camps are widely available, much less so are the accounts of treatment on liberation, repatriation and home-coming. Perhaps an opportunity for further research.

The stories of those prisoners that have been told and reported, drawn, filmed and recorded We must never forget what the survivors of the Blackpool Regiment went through, never.

As tourists travel to far away places in what is now Malaysia, visiting the shops and sites of the Modern Far East, will they ever consider what made those sites available to our generation and what might have happened if the Japanese had won the War there. We must also be wary of the ‘Disneyfication’ of the sites of battles and those of significance to the ‘Forgotten Army’ that fought in Malaysia: ‘The Burma Railway’, ‘The Bridge on the Kwai’, ‘Changi Prison’ and the multitude of war grave sites and the rest.

 

MPC
Part 1: Oct/Nov 2015
Part 2: Jul/Aug 2018

Authors Note:  Like the first part of this History of the Blackpool Regiment, this is a reduced version. The full story with Annexed documents is available at Blackpool Central Library, Local History Section.

 

References, Sources and Further Research

Media

Background to the Fall of Singapore
Isaacs, J., 1973, BBC Series ‘World at War’, Ep 6 Banzai! Japan (1931–1942), Thames Television

Lt Sutcliffes Diary (‘D’ Tp, 350 Bty, 137 Fd Regt RA)
Personal Papers of Lt Robert Sutcliffe, 350 Battery, 137 Fd Regt RA TA. At Imperial War Museum, Library, Ref: Docs18749

Personal Diary of CO of 88 Fd Regt
D’Arbuz, History of the 88th Fd Regt RA In Malaya 1941/42, Unpublished. At IWM Library, Ref: LBY K.84/2318

Accounts of Captivity
Vart, R., Experience of Captivity with 137 Fd Regt RA, Sound Recording, at: Lancashire Archive, Ref: 1995.0231

Websites

Details of Japanese Prison Camps; locations and life in the camps at:
www.forces-war-records.co.uk/prisoners-of-war-of-the-japanese-1939-1945

Clark T.(Ed) 2008, The ‘Bushido’ Code at:
www.artofmanliness.com/2008/09/14/the-bushido-code-the-eight-virtues-of-the-samurai

Conditions on Thai- Burma Railway at:
Coombes, J.H.H., (1948), Banpong Express, available at: https://sgp1.digitaloceanspaces.com/proletarian-library/singapore-malaysia/Major%20J.%20H.%20H.%20Coombes/Banpong%20Express%20(1423)/Banpong%20Express%20-%20Major%20J.%20H.%20H.%20Coombes.pdf

Jap PoW Index Cards;  PoWs held in Singapore Camps at NA WO367 and Find My Past; Hospital Registers for PoW Camps in the Far East (1942-1947) at NA WO 347 via:
www.nationalarhives.gov.uk

Researching FEPOW History 2015 Conference Papers, Surviving Far East Captivity and the Aftermath: 70 Years On
https://fepowhistory.files.wordpress.com/2015/06/surviving-captivity-conference-june2015w.pdf

Accounts of the Sumatra Railway construction
https://sumatrarailway.com/

Entertainment in camps at:
http://digitalcommons.macalester.edu/captiveaudiences/

Experience of PoW’s Families via Google Books, search ‘War and Welfare: British Prisoner of War Families, 1939-45’ at:
https://books.google.co.uk/books

Information on Civil Resettlement Units at:
http://moderntimesworkplace.com/archives/ericsess/sessvol1/Wilsonp88.opd.pdf

The Sporting Lives of Sir Shenton Thomas and the Male European Internees at Changi Prison Camp During the Japanese Occupation of Singapore, 1942–1945, Peng Han Lim and Mohd Salleh Aman at:
http://repository.um.edu.my/96668/1/LPH%20and%20Salleh%20Aman.pdf

Document 2701, etc.  at:
http://ronnyhermandejong.com/crimes/

Leaflets ‘Guard your Tongue’, etc at:
Oliver, L., 2017, Prisoners of the Sumatra Railway: Narratives of History and Memory, Bloomsbury Publishing. Available on Google Books, search ‘Guard Your Tongue’

Photo of Repatriation Memorial Liverpool By Rodhullandemu [CC BY-SA 4.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], from Wikimedia Commons

Photo of Kranji War Memorial By Oorlogsgraven stichting [CC BY 2.5 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5, via Wikimedia Commons

‘Epilogue Camp’, Discussion and documents at:
http://ww2talk.com/index.php?threads/epilogue-camp-rangoon-1945.59551/

Brig EW Goodman account of time in Malaya, including capture, imprisonment, liberation and repatriation at:
http://www.britain-at-war.org.uk/WW2/Brigadier_EW_Goodman/index.htm

WW2 Forum at:
http://ww2talk.com/index.php?threads/137-fd-regt-ra-blackpool-regt.42313/#post-504897

Thai-Burma Railway map at:
https://anzacportal.dva.gov.au/history/conflicts/thaiburma-railway-and-hellfire-pass/events/building-hellfire-pass/map-thaiburma

No 1 Nong Pladuc Camp and Group 1 Movements at:
http://roycollins.me.uk/military_service/pow_part3.html

‘The New Plan’
http://roycollins.me.uk/military_service/homecoming.html

Books

Blackburn, K, & Hack, K., 2007, Forgotten Captives in Japanese-Occupied Asia, Routledge

Bull, S., 1999, Lancashire Gunners at War: the 88th Lancashire Field Regiment, 1939-1945, Carnegie Publishers

Chesworth, A., (2017), Planning and Realities: The Recovery of Britain’s Far East Prisoners Of War 1941-1945, PhD. Thesis, Dept of History, University of Sheffield. Available at: etheses.whiterose.ac.uk

Coombes, J.H.H., (1948), Banpong Express, Self Published, Printed by Wm Dresser & Sons, Darlington

Davies, P., (2013), The Man Behind the Bridge: Colonel Toosey and the River Kwai, A&C Black

Daws, G., 1996, Prisoners of the Japanese: POWs of World War II in the Pacific Paperback, William Morrow Paperbacks

Eldredge, SE., 2014, Captive Audiences / Captive Performers: Music and Theatre as Strategies for Survival on the Thailand – Burma Railway 1942-1945, Macalester College

Farrell, B., (2005), The Defence and Fall of Singapore (2nd Ed, 2015), Monsoon Books, Singapore

Hately-Broad, B., 2013, War and Welfare: British Prisoner of War Families, 1939-45, Manchester University Press,

Mitchell, I., 1996, Prisoners of the Emperor Paperback, The Pentland Press

Monument, G., 1996, An Angel on my Shoulder, A Lane Publishers,

Parkes, M. & Gill G., (2015) , Captive Memories: Starvation, Disease, Survival, Palatine Books.

Parkes, M., 2002, ‘Notify Alec Rattray…’, Kranji Publications

Parkes, M., 2003, ‘…A.A. Duncan is OK’, Kranji Publications

Summers, J., 2005, The Colonel of Tamarkan: Philip Toosey and the Bridge on the River Kwai, Simon & Shuster UK Ltd.

Taylor, E., 2018, Captivity: Prisoners of the Japanese – Their ordeal and the Legacy, Pen & Sword Military,

Woodburn-Kirby, S.,et al.,  (1957), The War Against Japan: The Loss of Singapore (Official History), Vol 1, HMSO, London. Republished 2015 by 232 Celcius.

 

Who is ‘Grundy’?

On an unusually leisurely walk on Highfield Road, in South Shore

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The Commemorative Stone at the Park, there is a second tablet with the date ‘July 1915’

recently, I noticed the commemorative stone set in the wall of the Recreation Ground and former Library. The rest of my walk was spent wondering who, when, what and why?

‘Grundy’ was in fact a pair of brothers, both Artists. Sons of a Bury Solicitor and staunch Unitarian, Thomas Grundy: John Relph Greenhow Grundy, born 1841 and Cuthbert Cartwright Grundy born 1846. The Census record for 1861 shows Thomas with wife Eliza (nee Greenhow) and  four children, older brothers Thomas and Edmund (also Solicitors), along with John and Cuthbert the youngest. The record also shows the household with a House Maid and a Cook. John is a Bleacher/Dyer in a local Cotton Mill and Cuthbert a School boy.

Cuthbert was expected to follow his brothers and father into the legal profession; however, dogged by illness, his university life in Manchester was frequently interrupted. He took to Painting, Biology and Chemistry;  as an artist he was untrained, as a Chemist he was amateur, although in 1870 he published ‘An Introduction to the study of Chemistry’ and in 1871 ‘Notes on the Food of Plants’ and in 1901, ‘How does a Plant Grow? In the same year, their father died and Cuthbert was awarded a  silver medal for rescuing two boys from the sea at Grange over Sands.

By 1879, Cuthbert was producing and exhibiting Landscapes, often based on trips to the Lake District with brother John. He exhibited at the Royal Academy.

The Grundy association with Blackpool began when Cuthbert moved here in 1888. In 1891 he is living with a Servant from Nottingham at 11 Moore Street, South Shore (demolished in the 1970s).  John is also in Blackpool at 322 Lytham Road, with his wife Alice, a Daughter Ethel, John RG Jnr and two Servants.

The 1901 Census shows Cuthbert living with the same servant, in an eight bedroomed house at 326 Lytham Road as a Landscape painter. John has moved with his family next door to 328 Lytham Road. Cuthbert’s house became known as Grundy House and housed the Grundy Museum after his death in 1946 until the house became a private residence again in 1980. (Note: House number changes on Lytham Road took place between 1924 and 1929, What became the Grundy Museum was located at 456 Lytham Road)

As a Unitarian like his Father, Cuthbert held Unitarian services in his sitting room, until the South Shore Unitarian ‘Tin Tabernacle’ opened on Lytham Road in 1894. A Church Hall: ‘The Sir Cuthbert Grundy Hall’ was built in 1932, on the site, becoming the church in that year.  In 1904 Cuthbert’s support for the Unitarian community culminated in his formally opening of the Unitarian Church at Fairhaven in July 1930 and a Non Denominational, Free Christian Church on Waterloo Road.

Cuthbert never married He had said that his Mother was his best friend and if he was married he wouldn’t be able to do the things he wanted to do.  He and his brother were generous contributors to Children’s charities in Manchester, Bury and Blackpool. He was exhibiting in Blackpool in 1879, John following in 1880. He became a Magistrate and was Blackpool’s first Knighted resident. Becoming a Justice of the Peace in Lancashire and Blackpool

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Sir Cuthbert Grundy

Since 1902, Blackpool’s municipal art gallery, was housed in modest accommodation at Revoe Branch Library and both brothers exhibited there. In 1903 the Brothers sought to hand their collection of artwork to the Council in order to ‘encourage arts’ and to promote the formation of a dedicated Art Gallery in the town. As incentive the Brothers provided £2000 towards development costs. In 1908 a site in Queen Street was acquired for a new Library and Art Gallery. The work was completed in 1911, with a further extension of the Gallery in 1938.

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The Grundy Art Gallery today

The Grundy Art Gallery is regarded as ‘one of Britain’s loveliest little Galleries’ (Cook, W., ‘The Spectator’, 03/09/2011)

Cuthbert’s public persona burgeoned and in 1911 he was presented with a Ceremonial Key by Blackpool Corporation on the opening of the Recreation Park and Reading Room on Highfield Road, a project to which both brothers had promoted and contributed financially. The Grundy’s life long commitment to community culminated in the opening of Children’s Convalescent Home at 138 Stoney Hill Avenue.

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John RG Grundy

John died in 1915, in the same year Cuthbert was Knighted by King George V. The newspaper reports of his death were effusive, providing some glimmers of light into the life this very private man and his family.

He had trained to be a Civil Engineer. After a very few years he had abandoned his career in favour of Landscape and Seascape painting, around the time that Cuthbert was developing his own enthusiastic interests in painting and sketching. The brothers were reported as inseparable in their artistic pursuits. They founded The Bury Society of Fine Arts, played a significant role in establishing The Royal Cambrian Academy.between them the community benefited too; children’s Convalescent homes, recreation grounds, etc.  The apex of their joint enterprise was the establishment of Blackpool’s own Grundy Art Gallery.

With the anniversary of the death of his son Relph in 1907, John never really recovered, taking to his rooms for two weeks and dying shortly after, the culmination of two years ill health.

In 1933, Cuthberts name was included on the tablet commemorating the building of the Peace Palace in the Hague, after he had a commemorative medals cast for each of the 700 men who worked on the building; a testament to his Unitarian roots and his lifelong pursuit of peace and community.  He was made Hon freeman of County Borough of Blackpool in 1938 and died in Blackpool in 1946, just before his 100th birthday. Despite their generosity to Blackpool, their funeral services were low key in line with their belief in understatement, although press coverage was widespread.

Throughout both their lives the Grundy brothers had shunned publicity, John especially. However, that belies the fantastic contribution both may to the Arts in general and cultural life in Blackpool in particular.  At Appendix ‘A’  is a summary of the Brothers extraordinary involvement with the Arts and Charity.

So this was the who, what when and how of the Grundy name is significant in Blackpool’s heritage.

MPC
April 2017

 

Sources & Further Research

Websites:

Census Returns at:
www.findmypast.co.uk
www.freecen
www.familysearch.org

Births Marriages & Deaths at:
www.lancashirebmd.org.uk

The full story and painting life of the Grundys at: http://www.lythamstannesartcollection.org/coming-rain-by-cuthbert-grundy.html

Story of Grundy Art Gallery at:
http://www.culture24.org.uk/nw000039

Changing fortunes of Blackpool
https://www.spectator.co.uk/2011/09/blackpools-ups-and-downs/#

Morris, E., 2001, Public Art Collections in North-West England: A History and Guide, Liverpool University Press

Images:   All images remain copyright to the Author.

Books authored by Cuthbert Grundy:
Grundy, C.C., 1870 ‘An Introduction to the study of Chemistry’, Ulan Press (Reprinted 2012)
Grundy, C., 1871 ‘Notes on the Food of Plants’, Nabu Press (Reprinted 2009)
Grundy, C., 1901, ‘How does a Plant Grow? John Murray, London (Reprinted 1935)
Grundy, C.C., 1909, ‘Paragraphs about Pictures: Six Dozen Helpful Hints for Visitors to a Picture Exhibition’, RE Jones, Conway (Reprinted 1913)

Newspaper References to the Grundy Brothers
21/04/1998 Evening Gazette, Feature on the contribution made by Sir Cuthbert Grundy.
28/10/1916 Gazette, ‘The man behind the Resort’s Gallery’
18/07/1927 Gazette, Grundy Home for Children foundation laying.
11/01/1927 Gazette, Forthcoming Ceremony
01/02/1946 Gazette, Obituary & death reports

Cuthbert References:
27/09/1907 Blackpool Herald   p6 Col 1
07/12/1904 Blackpool Times    p6 Col 6
16/08/1919   ,,                              p5 Col 8
03/01/1930   ,,                              p9 Col 1
09/02/1929 Gazette & Herald   p7 Col 3
27/09/1907 Blackpool Herald  p6 Col 1
08/10/1907   ,,                              p7 Col 3
22/03/1911  Blackpool Times  p5 Col 6

John References:
17/03/1915 Blackpool Times p5 Col 1 Obituary

Properties owned by the Grundys: to be found in
Kelly’s Blackpool Directory 1924, 1929, 1934,
Slater’s Blackpool Directory 1890, 1901, 1902, 1905, 1909
Cook’s Blackpool Directory 1896, 1902
All available at the Local & Family History Dept, Blackpool Central Library

Additional Sources:
Cuthbert’s Last Will and Testament available at Ref  LG3(P) Blackpool Central Library
Council Minutes for 1913: Establishment of Highfield Road Recreation Park and The Branch Reading room at Minutes: 375, 376, 395, 433, 481, 494, 495, 593, 596, 657, 664, 666, 677, 678.

Blackpool’s links with Malta.

I recently had a short holiday in Malta. Our excursions included a boat trip round the Grand Harbour in Valletta. Our attention was drawn to the strategic importance of the island and the number of invasions and sieges suffered by the Maltese by foreigners. From the early 1800s the British were the custodians of the island and the champions of the Mediterranean, having wresting occupation from the French by a Royal Navy blockade.  A short review of the history of Malta reveals a couple of unexpected links with Blackpool.

HMS Foudroyant

HMS Foudroyant, was wrecked on the beach by North Pier in 1897. Her story includes action and almost destruction at Valletta, Malta, whilst she was the Flagship of Admiral Horatio Nelson.

The French had captured Malta with a relatively small Expeditionary force in 1798, as a prelude to the capture of Egypt. Malta was of strategic importance as a staging post for Napoleon Bonapart’s aspirations of a threat to Britain’s presence in North Africa and ultimately in India.  The French sent a large force to capture Egypt and were pursued by a small British Naval force that included Foudroyant. Thus started what became known as the ‘Mediterranean Campaign’. The ‘Battle of the Nile’ proved decisive for Nelson and following it he was able to release ships to eliminate the French from Malta.  Foudroyant was one of a force of seven British ships sent to Blockade the Island in February 1799.

fig1williamtell

Figure 1.  Robert Dodd’s ‘The Capture of the Guillaume Tell’ by HMS Foudroyant (in the background) and HMS Penelope (in white sails)

The French attempted to break the Blockade in 1800 with a significant convoy of supplies and warships. The British squadron intercepted them and eventually the French surrendered, although the French Garrison on the island survived another few months, Malta surrendered in September 1800.

During the battle to destroy the French convoy, Foudroyant was badly damaged, so much so that she was put under tow for repairs to Syracuse, Sicily. She would be back in service by February 1801. Nelson was not on board during the Battle, he had been taken to Palermo in Sicily with heart problems.  As a measure of her involvement during the action, she had used:

161 barrels of gunpowder, together with
1200 x 32lb Shot  (Cannon Balls)
1240 x 20lb Shot,
100 x 18lb Shot
200 x 12lb Shot.

Incidentally, as shown in the engraving above, ‘HMS Penelope’ was also involved in the same action, receiving a medal for doing so.  A later incarnation of the ‘Penelope’ is also associated with Blackpool and Malta.

HMS Penelope

fig2penelope

Figure 2.  HMS Penelope in the Grand Harbour, Valletta.

There is another direct link with Malta in the resting place of known servicemen recorded on the Malta Memorial or buried on the island; together with the many Blackpool men who served and died in the seas around Malta between 1940 and 1942, when the Germans and Italians attempted to dislodge the British from this strategic stronghold. During the siege, the island, its ports, towns and installations were badly damaged by bombardment by air and sea, with significant loss of life. The Maltese population were awarded the George Cross. The citation read ‘to bear witness to the heroism and devotion of its people’

As early as 1938, Mussolini had intended taking the island from the British.  A little later, lack of supplies and fuel, together with a number of Naval defeats caused Italian military planners to suspend their plans.

Recognising the Islands importance to the Allies, Britain developed the defences and reinforcements in order to disrupt the enemy supplies for North Africa and the Mediterranean in general. The Grand Harbour in Valletta provided a suitable base for those activities.

Among the ships sent to defend support and strengthen the island was ‘HMS Penelope’. HMS Penelope was a ‘Light Cruiser’ warship, built by Harland & Wolff, in Belfast.  In 1941, a successful ‘Warship Week’ National Savings campaign led to its adoption by the population of Blackpool. She was referred to in the local press as ‘Blackpool’s Battleship’.  As mentioned earlier she was the second ship to bear the name, the first being part of Nelsons Squadron alongside HMS Foudroyant during the ‘Siege of Malta’ in 1799 to 1800.

This ship was to achieve a great reputation during operations in Norway in 1940 and patrol and convoy escort operations in the Mediterranean between 1941 and 1942 and later in the support of the Allied landings at Salerno in 1943 & Anzio in 1944.

fig3pepperpot

Figure 3.  ‘Pepperpot’ damage to HMS Penelope, June 1942.

To some extent she enjoyed a reputation as a ‘Lucky’ an accident prone ship, just like the Foudroyant, with a number of periods out of service undergoing repairs and bearing many battle scars. She was often referred to as ‘HMS Pepperpot’ in recognition of the holes in her structure from enemy action.  At one time she managed to plug holes from enemy gunfire and shrapnel by plugging them with wedges of wood, giving her the appearance and nickname of ‘HMS Porcupine’.

Nevertheless, her war service details are testament to a busy and successful time defending Malta and disrupting the Axis convoys and supporting operations throughout the Mediterranean. On return to Naples to restock with ammunition and supplied she was sunk with all hands (415, incl the Captain) following a submarine attack in February 1944. There were 250 survivors.

One of the casualties was ex Blackpool Grammar Schoolboy ALFRED JOHN BROOK, son of Cyril and Kathleen May Brook of Bloomfield Road, from Waterloo Juniors in 1936 until 1941.   He was 18 and is remembered on the Plymouth Naval Memorial.

There is a memorial to HMS Penelope in St Johns Church, Blackpool along with a Roll of Honour book with the names of the Officers and crew of the ship. A Penelope Association was also formed by survivors. Blackpool also has  also has links with the Blackpool Sea Cadet unit ‘TS Penelope’ at Bispham, the name reflecting the Blackpool link.  The Blackpool branch of the Royal Naval Association (RNA) met in the ‘Penelope Mess’ at the Stretton Hotel on North Promenade, although the RNA in Blackpool no longer exists.

Incidentally, there are two additional claims to fame, according to Wikipedia: CS Forester’s book ‘The Ship’, published in 1943 is dedicated to HMS Penelope as follows, “with the deepest respect to the officers and crew of HMS Penelope“.  The Politician and ex-Defence Secretary (2019), Penny Maudaunt is named after The ‘Penelope’.

On a purely personal note, my father’s best friend from St Anne’s, served on HMS Laforey, a Destroyer, in World War 2 . Laforey too was engaged in operations in support of Malta. During which she was involved in the infamous ‘Op Pedestal’, a British operation to re-supply Malta in August 1942. The story includes the amazing account of ‘SS’ Ohio, the aircraft fuel tanker, that limped into Valletta after being bombed and strafed. Like Penelope in Blackpool, Laforey had been adopted by the population of Northampton in November 1941. She too was sunk by a submarine north east of Sicily with the loss of all hands (189, incl the Commanding Officer) on 30 March 1944, my father’s 21st Birthday.

MPC
Jan 2017

Sources:

Websites

The story of Foudroyant 1799 – 1812 at:
http://www.ageofnelson.org/MichaelPhillips/info.php?ref=5356

Siege of Malta (1798 -1800) at:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Malta_(1798%E2%80%931800)

The history of HMS Penelope at:
http://www.naval-history.net/xGM-Chrono-06CL-Penelope.htm

HMS Penelope Casualty List at:
http://www.naval-history.net/xDKCas1944-02FEB.htm#penelopelost

HMS Penelope Association at:
http://www.hms-penelope.com/

HMS Laforey Casualty List at:
http://uboat.net/allies/merchants/crews/ship3227.html

The story of Op Pedestal and the SS Ohio at:
http://ww2today.com/14th-august-1942-the-battle-to-save-the-ohio

Wikipedia entry at:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Penelope_(97)

Books:

Gordon, E., 1985,  H.M.S. “Pepperpot!”: The “Penelope” in World War Two, Robert Hale Ltd

Ellis, J., 2013, Blackpool at War: A History of the Fylde Coast during the Second World War, The History Press

Images:

Fig 1.  Capture of the ‘Guillaume Tell’ off Valletta, March 1798 (HMS Penelope is with the White sails, Foudroyant in the background at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Foudroyant_(1798)

Fig 2.  HMS Penelope at Valletta at: http://www.naval-history.net/xGM-Chrono-06CL-Penelope.htm

Fig 3.  Pepperpot damage at:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Penelope_(97)

Other:

Foudroyants Legacy at: https://fyldecoaster.wordpress.com/2016/11/13/retaining-heritage-foudroyants-legacy/

Exciting Excursions: Blackpool’s Paddle Steamers

Prompted by an excellent talk by local historian Barry Shaw, I was intrigued by the number range and activities of the fleet of Paddle Steamers that provided services to Blackpool holidaymakers.

I have written of the work of shipping on this coast, of the wrecks and rescues that

slide1

Figure 1. The ‘Lune’ and the ‘Greyhound’ to the right

were part of the seafaring community in town. This aspect is largely ignored by in the story and heritage of Blackpool.

In 1812, Bell’s paddle steamer ‘Comet’ became the world’s first operational, commercial passenger steamship for coastal waters.

Mass Transportation of people and goods up to the 19th century was dominated by travel by sea, certainly up to the development and spread of the railways in the 1840’s. Where road transport would have been difficult because of terrain or the cost and expertise of road-building, ships of all sizes would journey between coastal towns, near and far.

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Figure 2. A Railway Poster

With the development of leisure with improving working conditions and a notion of ‘disposable income’, the opportunity was realised for entrepreneurs to invest and make money from the burgeoning tourists and holidaymakers that flocked to the seaside, for health and entertainment. For some the first experience of not just riding on a ship but seeing the sea for the first time.

Blackpool’s entrepreneurial spirit was quick to form companies to build and operate ships for leisure purposes, linking resorts and enabling holidaymakers to see and sample resorts in easy travel time: Fleetwood, Southport, Morecambe, Douglas (Isle of Man), Llandudno.

The Ferry from Fleetwood extended the range of the railway network by bypassing the then unassailable ‘Shap’. Even Queen Victoria availed herself of the service to Androssan in Scotland on her regular journeys to Balmoral. Indeed, Thomas Cook organised a party of 350 to do the same trip in 1846.

A new Jetty was built accommodate Paddle Steamers and to compete with the Victoria (North) Pier in 1868. It wasn’t long before the Jetty was upgraded to what became the South  Pier in 1878, with a Toll House and additional facilities and attractions.

The first major Paddle Steamer to ply her trade was the ‘Bickerstaffe’, built in the Laird

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Figure 3. The ‘Bickerstaffe’

Shipyard in Birkenhead. It was built for the Bickerstaffe family, who owned the South Jetty or South Pier (later Central Pier) opened in 1878.

She sailed mainly on the Isle of Man route, under command of Capt Clare. The fare was 6/- First Class and 4/6d Second Class, about 30p today.

It was said that the Bickerstaffe’s popularity lay in the fact that her daily afternoon sailings always coincided with the shout of ‘Time Gentlemen Please’ by local Publicans was followed by a mad rush to the Jetty.

In the days after a Sea going vessel passed the 3 mile limit, the bars were then opened for the duration of the voyage until the 3 mile limit at the destination Port of Call.

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Figure 4. The ‘Bickerstaffe Bell’

In 1915 The Bickerstaffe was requisitioned for war service as a Minesweeper and was eventually broken up at Garston Docks on the banks of the River Mersey in 1928. Her Ships Bell hangs in the ground floor of Blackpool’s Central Library as a reminder of those heady days.

Heyday

Megoran (2016) suggests that in their heyday from 1890s until the First World War, ‘so prolific were excursion Paddle Steamers that you could have boarded a ship at Great Yarmouth and, with an assiduous study of the timetables and connection’ travel anywhere from there to North Wales. The same is true of the Blackpool based ships and visiting ships, travel from North Wales to the Clyde and North of Scotland. Appendix ‘B’ provides a map of the Sea Routes.from Blackpool.

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Figure 5. An Excursion Handbill

For Blackpool itself the heyday appears between 1870 and 1880 when no less than 7 ships regularly operated into and out of the resort.

It’s not surprising, that, apart from the Piers themselves and the Paddle Steamers, Raikes Hall Park held the monopoly. At the height of its success in the 1870s there was no Winter Gardens, no Tower to attract visitors

The Weekly ‘Steamboat Traffic Returns’ reported in the Gazette for Whit Week, June 1873 show 18,200 persons making sailing excursions from South Pier alone, representing 1 in 3 of the visitors to the Pier. Over the same period the Raikes Hall complex welcomed 40,000 visitors, each paying 2d for the privilege.

In one weekend in June 1899, The Gazette was reporting excursions planned for the ‘Greyhound’, the ‘Queen of the North’ and the ‘Clifton’ to Piel Island, Douglas, Morecambe and Southport. Appendix ‘C’ shows the cover of the 1901  official guide to Steamboat Sailings.

Around 1990, on the Anniversary of the Battle of the Atlantic, The ‘Waverley’ once more docked at North Pier to take passengers into the Mersey, for the commemorations. Sadly, because of poor weather and sea conditions she was unable to return her passengers who had to travel back from Liverpool by bus.

 The Companies

From the simplicity of entrepreneurship in the beginning, the complexity of who owned what, when, where and for how long is shown in Appendix ‘A’ and there are websites describing ownership. Companies were merged and acquired alongside the ebb and flow of demand for steamer services. The situation is further confused by the acquisition and disposal of the Steamers. The company and ship ownership family tree of that era, is worthy of much more research.

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Figure 6. A Press Advert

Blackpool probably had the largest number of locally owned vessels in the fleet operating out of Blackpool. Initially, North Pier offered docking facilities, provided by the owners. Later by a company formed for the purpose, The North Pier Steamship Company. The newly built South Jetty (later Central Pier) provided alternative facilities and access to holidaymakers based in South Shore in 1871. Established by John Bickerstaffe, this company was acquired by Blackpool Passenger Steamboat Co in 1894 and then the North Pier in 1905. John’s Son HD Bickerstaffe re-acquired the company in 1923.

The Railway companies also developed Paddle Steamer services to integrate their rail journeys with ferry and excursion provision.

Individuals too made a contribution. The Gazette of 10 April 1873 gives details of A Mr Enoch Read of Birmingham, son of William Read of Blackpool purchasing the Steamboat ‘Dandy’, although undergoing repairs in Dublin would be ready for service by Easter Bank Holiday Monday of that year.

Development of Technology

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Figure 7. The Paddle Principle

The Paddle Steamers associated with Blackpool are those with Paddle to the sides of the ship, as opposed to those in widespread use in the US, with a large driving paddle to the rear.

There may be a further confusion between ‘ Paddle Steamers’ and ‘Turbine Steamers’ the latter generally refers to steam ships driven by a propeller rather than ‘Paddles’.

Sailboats, Clippers & Windjammers had plied their trade through the Irish Sea and to its ports and docks for 100s of years, either calling at Lancaster, Skipool & Wardleys, Glasson, Fleetwood, Lytham, Freckleton and Preston, or linking the big ports of Liverpool with the Americas and the Far East.  Some a product of the Industrial Revolution, providing transport of coal and other goods up the Douglas River and the local canal system, even right into the heart of the coalfields of Wigan.

The number of recorded wrecks and rescues is testament to the weight and range of traffic and cargo through local waters.

With the invention and development of Steam engines in the 18th century there was a new faster, more economic way of moving goods and people by sea. All this at the same time as needs grew from the Industrial revolution.  For the leisure business, steam power had a major advantage too, it wasn’t weather dependent. Steam ships could sail in the lightest breeze or the roughest sea making them ideal to fit into entertainment mix of the new burgeoning seaside resorts.

Paddle Steamers were the first types of ship to make use of a steam engine, converting the circular motion of a turbine, transmitted to large ‘Paddle Wheels’ on either side of the ship. In operation, these paddles drove the ship forward or back by, in effect, pushing the water, much as an oar or paddle would and causing the ship to move in the water. As the technology improved, the gearing of the paddles would allow some manoeuvrability by enabling one paddle to turn whilst the other slowed or stopped, bringing about a turn in direction.

The weight of often large Cast Iron paddle wheels, mostly above the water line, made ships unstable and there are records of ships capsizing as passengers rushed to one side of the ship when coming into port.

Further, the advent and continuous development of the ‘Screw Propeller’ in the mid 19th century added a new dimension to efficient operation of shipping, commercial and leisure. Profit laid Paddle driven steamers to rest, other than as novelties to be seen and exploited as such. The last Paddle Steamers still provide excursions in the UK, the ‘Waverley’, ‘Balmoral’ and  ‘Lingsmere Castle’ still operates round UK Ports and is listed with the ‘National Historic Fleet’ under the care of the ‘Paddle Steamer Preservation Society’

War Service

Paddle Steamer operators were not immune to the demands made in Wartime. Neither were they exempt from destruction. Although none of the Blackpool based Steamers were sunk, those of other resorts were, in both World Wars. Indeed four of the London Thames based steamers were bought and moved to Iraq for service there just before WW1.  A Britain based ship, The ‘Brighton Belle’ was sunk off the coast of Dunkirk in 1940 fulfilling her role as a Minesweeper. The original ‘Waverley’, after which the Paddle Steamer was named, also served gallantly at Dunkirk before being sunk by enemy action.

Others requisitioned for minesweeping included the Bickerstaffe, Queen of the North, Greyhound and Atalanta in WW1, Queen of the Bay in ww2. Incidentally the Queen of the Bay served as a blockade runner in the Spanish Civil War as the ‘Capitande Corbeta Verdia’. The  ‘Queen of the North’ was drafted into service as a Minesweeper, based at Harwich and was sunk by a mine off Orford Ness, Suffolk in July 1917.

The Heritage of Paddle Steamers in Blackpool

There is very little left by way of neither ‘hard’ ephemera nor artefacts of the Paddle Steamer era. There are postcards, photographs and prints; the Bickerstaffe Bell, together with Press cuttings and adverts. We also have the stories of the ships, their owners and itineraries. Enthusiasts have established a charity, ‘The Paddle Steamer Preservation Society’, in a bid to keep what remains of the Paddle Steamer fleet in the public’s eye.

The accounts of the birth, growth and decline of this industry and their impact on holidaymakers and on the growth and development of the resort, not to mention the benefit to the enterprising individuals that brought it about, cannot be overstated.

The beach and sea have silted up over the years eliminating the prospect of a return of ships to dock alongside the North and Central Piers.  However, the stories and memories remain.

MPC
Jan 2017

Sources

Books

Megoran J., 2016, British Paddle Steamers: The Heyday of Excursions and Day Trips, Amberley Publishing. Available at books.google.co.uk/books

Gladwell A., 2013, North Wales Pleasure Steamers, Amberley Publishing

Gladwell A., 2003, Lancashire Coast Pleasure Steamers, Tempus

Dumpleton, B., 1973, Story of the Paddle Steamer, Melksham Colin Venton

Duckworth, CLD., & Langmuir, GE., 1956, West Coast Steamers, Stephenson & Son

Seddon, A., 1996, Raikes Hall: Its Golden Years, Peneverdant Publishing.

Newspapers

Blackpool Gazette & Herald References:

Piers & Steamboats                        13/06/1873  p2.5
North Pier Steamship Co              15/02/1895  p4.1
Steamboat Cruises                          16/06/1899  p6.6
Blackpool to Llandudno                 04/06/1909  p8.4
50 years Ago                                      06/07/1917  p2.3-5

Websites

Comprehensive details, stories and links to Paddle Steamers at: http://www.paddlesteamers.info/BlackpoolOperators.htm  And  http://www.simplonpc.co.uk/NorthWestUK.html#anchor6818

http://www.fleetwood-trawlers.info/index.php/2008/12/pt-dhuheartach/

Other

Mitchell & Kenyon Film Archive:

Identifier: 661167   Steamboats at Blackpool North Pier (1903) Original release
Ref: 206 Blackpool Steamers North Pier (Archive)
Ref: 208 Blackpool Steamers, Deerhound (Archive)
Ref: 207 Blackpool North Pier Steamboat (C.1900) (Archive)
Ref: 209 Blackpool Steamers, Greyhound, Belle and Clifton (Archive)
Paddle Steamer Preservation Society at:   http://www.paddlesteamers.org/

Official Guides:
Steamboat sailings from Blackpool for 1901,1903, 1905, 1906, 1907, 1908, 1910, 1912, 1913 & 1914 at Blackpool Central Library, Local & Family History Dept at: Ref: LN44(P)

Paddle Steamer Preservation Society at:   http://www.paddlesteamers.org/

Images

Fig 1  The ‘Lune’ and ‘Greyhound’   http://www.simplonpc.co.uk/NorthWestUK.html#anchor945522

Fig 2  Rail Poster   http://blog.nrm.org.uk/conserving-the-midland-railway-poster-blackpool/

Fig 3  The ‘Bickerstaffe’   http://www.simplonpc.co.uk/NorthWestUK.html#anchor139855

Fig 4  The ‘Bickerstaff Bell’   (Barry Shaw)

Fig 5  Advertising Handbill   (Gladwell 2003)

Fig 6  Excursion Press Poster   (Gladwell, 2003)

Fig 7  Paddle principle   http://nautarch.tamu.edu/PROJECTS/denbigh/WHEEL.HTM

 

Retaining Heritage: Foudroyant’s Legacy

For sale on Ebay: ‘A Medallion With A Blackpool Connection’.  What on earth is the story behind this token of Blackpool’s maritime heritage?

Indeed, there’s more!  A cupboard and chair made from Foudroyant’s timbers; Walking Sticks; Copper plates and watch fobs; pictures and cards; news articles, paintings, photos and prints, all at surprising prices and available from all over the World.

The message from these adverts is two-fold. On the one hand, the fact that these items are for sale, on the other, at least the memory of Foudroyant lives on, through these artefacts, as does the connection with Blackpool.

Investigation of the connection starts as usual with a look at local newspapers and of course, and internet search.

So what did we find out?

What was the ‘Foudroyant’? 

In fact there were two ‘Foudroyants’. The one with the Blackpool and memorabilia connections is ‘HMS Foudroyant’. Built in Plymouth and launched there in 1798; she was an 80 Gun, ‘Full Rigged’ warship, a sister ship to HMS Caesar and named after the French ship, bearing the same name, captured in 1758 during the ‘Seven Years War’ with France and Spain, during the blockade of the Spanish Port of Cartegena. The name is derived from the French for ‘Thunderbolt’.

HMS Foudroyant had a somewhat chequered service, despite service during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, including a three year spell stationed on the River Plate, in Rio de Jeneiro; action in Egypt; Royal visits; Troop Transport; roles as ‘Flagship’; punctuated by long periods in dock for repairs, or service as a Tender or Guard Ship. She was decommissioned in 1812. In her later years she was a Gunnery Training ship and a Naval Training ship. An attached annexe ‘A’ gives details the service history of the Foudroyant. It’s most celebrated role was as Nelson’s ‘Flagship’ from June 1799 until 1800.

In June 1891 she was put on to the Navy’s ‘Sales List’. Bought by J Read of Portsmouth for £2350 and quickly resold to German Shipbreakers, who promptly started dismantling the upper decks,  prompting protests in the press and at the highest levels in the UK. Arthur Conan Doyle resorted to poetry and ‘Punch’ magazine published a follow-up piece ridiculing the Royal Navy decision to sell off the ship.

She was re-bought at a cost of £6,000 and brought to London eventually by Mr Geoffrey Wheatly Cobb, with a plan to redevelop the Foudroyant as a Boys Training Ship, at a cost of £20,000. In order to recoup costs of refurbishment to original design, the ship was to be exhibited at Seaside resorts.

By 1896 the Foudroyant, ‘Nelsons Flagship’ was on tour, carrying a crew of 27, 20 of who were Boy Sailors. On 11 June 1897 lay off Blackpool Promenade, between North and Central Piers, about a mile out. The Gazette & News reported the ‘Man-o-War’ ‘framed in a sea of glass, which was only broken by the fussy passenger steamers’. All setting the scene, for what was to be a short season of attraction for the visitors at Blackpool and an opportunity for Mr Cobb to make a contribution to the running costs of the venture.  The article went on to describe the visit to the ship by the local dignitaries, leaving North Pier in the ‘Clifton’. Commodore G.L. Seed, the Chief Constable and Mr J.L. Smith all munching on chocolate ice cream.

Entry to the ship was a shilling, the Boy Sailors provided a band playing nautical ditties. On the 15th a new venture was tried – Dancing on the upper Deck, by all accounts a great success, promising a lucrative visit to Blackpool, for the owner.

Foudroyant doomed!

On the evening of the 15th , the weather was fine, albeit with a sprinkling of fine rain, but nothing to keep the crowds away.

By 4am on the 16th a rapidly developing storm had blown up, almost ‘out of the blue’. By 6am a ‘an iron chain as thick as a man’s wrist’ had snapped in the weight of the wind and sea, pushing the Foudoyant on to the beach, approximately in line with the end of North Pier, in just 14ft of water. The force of repeatedly ‘bumping’ on the beach, with the ebb and flow of the tide, causing her hull to breach in places, snapping masts and tearing sails,. Now on her side and flooded, about 600 yards offshore she rolled and writhed in the storm tide, which was now ‘sweeping over the Sea Front’.

The Owner and Crew were still on board. At 09.00am they hoisted a Distress Signal and the Samuel Fletcher II was brought from the Lifeboat house on Lytham Road, harnessed up and towed up the Promenade, now crowded by sightseers. The launch was further hampered by waiting for the tide to turn. She launched into a wild surf at 1pm, four hours after being called. Eventually battling through debris, rigging and broken timbers, the ‘Samuel Fletcher’ struggled to stay on station, but managed to scoop all to safety. The full complement of twenty seven and Mr Wheatley Cobb were rescued and brought to shore at about 2.30pm, under the gaze of excited crowds on the Promenade.

image005The following day, the damage was clear. It was possible to climb into the mud caked and battered hulk via a hole created by one of the 32 Pounder guns, which had broken loose on the lower deck. The upper deck was strewn with timber, planking and guns wrenched from their carriages. Nevertheless, the crew attempted to gather their belongings left their in the hurry of escape. One managed to retrieve his Concertina, before the incoming tide of the 18 June washed over her.

image006By the 19th June, prompted by the enterprising efforts of Blackpool’s Marketing Manager, visitors from all over the north were filling trains to see the spectacle and the resort. It hadn’t been a good season until the wreck. The Queens Jubilee year had kept folk at home

Losses for Cobb were estimated at £30,000 and there was no insurance cover. Already there was talk of the value of the remaining hulk and options available: perhaps sold piecemeal- guns, timber, etc. or made watertight and retained as tourist attraction. The Directors of North Pier had a more pragmatic approach; they sought an injunction to have the wreck removed, since if it broke away or broke up further it would pose a hefty threat to the pier structure. By mid July, Foudroyant’s fate was sealed. Cobb had agreed with a Clyde based salvage company to re-float the wreck and tow it away for dismantling. Progress was being made, however, the Foudroyant was not finished yet.

A steam tug, the ‘Anna’, employed to by the salvage company found itself in difficulties during another freak storm and had pulled away from the Foudroyant to anchor offshore to ride out the squall. She was carrying ropes and some of the guns from Foudroyant, with the weight of the wind and tide, she slipped her anchor and drifted to shore. Deluged, she was unable to operate pumps and steam engines and eventually only the mast was visible in the swell. The crew had been taken off by off duty fishermen using a pleasure boat.

The following morning debris and wreckage were strewn along the North beach

In front of the ever present crowds on the North Promenade, another salvage attempt was made in mid August. The ‘Aurora’, a trim, neat 300 Tonner arrived to restart operations, loading more guns, ropes and rigging, timbers and artefacts from HMS Foudroyant. The Aurora was tethered to her broadside and as the tide increased, her moorings gave way and she broke free, bobbing precariously in the swell rolling heavily with every wave until she hit one of the beach banks, rapidly filling with water. As the tide rolled in she was battered against the Sea Wall.  Another thrilling spectacle for the Blackpool crowds.

On the 20 August, the Gazette reported ‘Never has there been a season in which exciting incidents have been so plentiful’

Exciting, but also dangerous. There were a number of accidents involving people getting close to the Foudroyant, and reported in the Gazette: a sailor fell from the wreck; a cannon ball fell from the deck injuring a Policeman and the tragic death of a bystander, reported later in this piece. Latterly, crowds were kept away from the wreck, initially to stop looting, later to reduce risk of injury. However, the Blackpool phenomena of any opportunity to make a shilling, was not to be thwarted and many stands were established close by selling all manner of goods and services.

Now what about those Ebay artefacts, souvenirs and museum pieces? 

image008

Display Case from Foudroyant’s timber

By November of 1897, The Foudroyant was in the hands of Mr Michael Hayhurst of Birkenhead, for just £700. Demolition was planned using Dynamite, however, the weather and tide continued its toll on the ship. Until in August of 1898 more misfortune beset the Foudroyant when, Hayhurst and his young son set charges to demolish the ship. During the explosion a large fragment of wood and copper sailed through the air and caught a female visitor, killing her instantly.

Eventually, the salvageable oak timbers, copper sheeting and bolts from the ship were sold to Cabinet Maker Robert Fletcher of Talbot Road.  The Copper Sheeting from the Hull of Foudroyant was made into many souvenirs, including medals.  In 1901 the Oak was sold on to a Manchester Company: Goodhall, Lamb and Heighway where the oak was turned into furniture. As early as 1899, newspaper report told of the removal and installation of Foudroyants staircase into what was Jenkinsons Café (on the site of what became ‘Rumours’, on Talbot Road). Many of Foudroyant’s artefacts are held at the Nelson Museum, Monmouth. The panelling from the Captain’s Cabin is reputed to have lined the Board Room at Blackpool Football Club.

There are also two paintings of the wreck and its aftermath, one at the Nelson Museum and one held by the Messel Family at ‘Nymans’, a National Trust property in West Sussex. Local resident presented a painting by Charles Simpson to the Borough Library & Galleries Committee, which is still there.

The name ‘Foudroyant’ lives on too in the Training Ship. In 1903 HMS Trincomalee was renamed TS Foudroyant, after the ship she replaced. She remained in service as TS Foudroyant until 1986, after which she was again restored and renamed back to TS Trincomalee in 1992.  Billed as the oldest warship afloat anywhere in the world’, she is berthed at Hartlepool’s Maritime Museum.

MPC
Nov 2016

Sources and Further Reading

Acknowledgement:  This piece has been constructed from materials gathered by Tony Sharkey at Blackpool Local and Family History Centre at Blackpool Central Library. Without his help this work would have been made difficult.

Images
Where possible, images are included under ‘Creative Commons’ licences

Foudroyant on the Beach – Unknown author, Gazette image

Wreck of HMS ‘Foudroyant’, Blackpool, 1897 at:
http://www.modelshipbuilder.com/e107_plugins/forum/forum_viewtopic.php?1634

Foudroyant Medal, by the Author

Cabinet from Fourdroyant Oak, Nelson Museum, Monmouth by John Cummings at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Foudroyant_(1798)

Paintings of the Wreck of the Foudroyant at:
http://artuk.org/discover/artworks/hms-foudroyant-wrecked-at-blackpool-159432
https://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/nymans/features/the-foudroyant
https://nymanshouseblognt.wordpress.com/2016/04/21/hms-foudroyant/

Newspaper Reports

Sailor falls from Foudroyant:
Blackpool Times, 1897, ‘A remarkable number of accidents’, 01/09, p2 col 8

Loss of Aurora and plans for disposal of Foudroyant:
Blackpool Times, 1897, ‘Our latest wreck; and the next’, 21/08, p5 col 6

Court case:
Times, 1897, ‘The Advertising on the Foudroyant’, 04/08, p2 col 9

Fate of Foudroyant:
Blackpool Times. 1897, (Editorial comment), 17/07, p4 col 6

Preserving of Foudroyant:
Blackpool Times, 1897, (Editorial comment), 07/07, p5 col 4

Poem:
Blackpool Times, Goulden, J., 1897, ‘Lines on the wreck of the Foudroyant’, 30/06, p3 col 9

Ladies Swim to Foudroyant:
Blackpool Times, 1897, (Editorial comment), 23/06, p5 col 1

Danger to North Pier:
Blackpool Times, 1897, ‘What will become of her?’, 23/06, p5 col 1

Account of the loss of Foudroyant:
Blackpool Times, 1897, (Several headings with picture), 19/06, p8 cols1-6

Newspaper coverage and a poem:
Blackpool Gazette & News, 1897, ‘Our wreck editions’ & ‘Ode to the Foudroyant’,  22/06, p3 col 1

Disposal of the Foudroyant wreck:
Blackpool Gazette & News, 1897, ‘What of the ‘Foudroyant’?’’, & Her owners intentions’, ‘Value of the vessel’, 22/06, p3 col1

Visit to the ship:
Blackpool Gazette & News, 1897, ‘With Lord Nelson’; ‘On board ‘Foudroyant’’, 11/06, p5 col 6

Account of the loss of Foudroyant:
Blackpool Gazette & news, 1897, (Several Headings), 18/06, p8 cols 1-8

Presentation of a Painting:
Blackpool Gazette & Herald, 1943, ‘Foudroyant for the Art Gallery’, 24/07, p1 col 2

Foudroyant’s cable found:
Blackpool Gazette & Herald, 1925, ‘A Nelson relic’ (with pic), 24/02, p7 col 4-6

Foudroyant Supplement:
Blackpool Gazette & Herald, 1921, ‘About our special Supplement’, 13/12, p6 cols 3-6

Staircase to Jenkinsons Café:
Blackpool Gazette, 1899, ‘Jenkinsons developments’, 25/08,  p2 col6

Foudroyant fatality:
Blackpool Gazette, 1898, ‘Foudroyant Fatality: a day trippers sad end whilst watching the ships’, 19/08, p3 col 3

Story of the Foudroyant:
Blackpool Gazette, 1897,‘Story of the ‘Foudroyant’’, 30/11, p3 col 1-4

Wreck of the ‘Anna’:
Blackpool Gazette, 1897, ‘Another Shipwreck The salvage steamer swamped’, 30/07, p8 col 3

Wreck of the ‘Anna’:
Blackpool Gazette, 1897, ‘Another wreck’’, 20/08, p6 col 6

Wreck of the ‘Anna’
Blackpool Times, 1897, ‘Our latest wreck’, 21/08, p5 col 6

Books

The literary response to the sale of HMS Foudroyant in :
Doyle, A.C., 1892: The Fighting ‘Foudroyant’, in Peschel B., (et al), 2014, The Early Punch Parodies of Sherlock Holmes’,  Peschel Press,  Available at: Google Books

Short account of the Lifeboat rescue in :
Morris, J., 2002, Blackpool Lifeboats, Lifeboat Enthusiasts’ Society, Coventry

Courtfield Days: An affectionate glance at the history of venerable institution.

CourtfieldIntroduction

The term ‘Courtfield’ has a dual meaning for those who experienced it. First, there was the House, ‘Courtfield House’, which served as the physical location hotel & catering training from 1947 until 1969 and then again from 1986 until 1998. Secondly, Courtfield was the name associated with all the training that went on there, when ‘Courtfield’ became synonymous with the World Class’ skills training and management education that went on there. In those early days, Courtfield and Westminster College were the two centres of excellence in the UK, competing with the best Hotel Schools in Europe. They provided the industry with the key players in hotel and catering operations and management, throughout the world.

In its heyday, Courtfield was in the vanguard of hotel and catering (as it was referred to then, ‘hospitality’ now) learning. The only other catering college at the time was Westminster and a little later the Universities of Strathclyde and Surrey offered courses in catering management. It was established in the tradition of the greatest hotel schools in the world, those of Lausanne, Luzern, Cornell, The Hague and Geneva, eventually spawning a host of competing schools throughout the UK and Europe. Courtfield’s history is woven with the names of great people, the brainchild of legends William Rees Jones, the first Head of Department, Gloria Swanson, the president of the Hotel & Boarding House Association, Alderman Machin, Billy Read, Johnny Whyte, later Geoff Cowell.

History of Hospitality Education in Blackpool

Although its actual origins are unclear, it’s certain that a School of Confectionery was operating in the 1920’s by local Baker and entrepreneur George Burton. Burtons pioneered bakery manufacturing and technologies. It became one of the UK’s largest biscuit maker, as Burton’s Gold Medal Biscuit Company and eventually becoming Burton’s Foods. George became Chief examiner with City & Guilds and by 1937 was Head of Blackpool Technical College’s School of Bakery.

Discussions commenced between the new College’s Principal and Blackpool Borough Council to establish a college to support the hotel and catering businesses in the local economy. In 1934 Classes were held to assist Blackpool Hotel & Boarding House Association improve its member’s services to its visitors. In 1937 the College held classes at Thames Road School and at Vance Road providing the beginnings of formal hotel and catering courses, together with the formation of an Advisory Committee. 1939 the College Prospectus listed a ‘Hotel & Catering Trades Advisory Committee, indicating a well established and co-ordinated provision for the town’s Hotel & Catering Industry.

After World War 2 catering courses attracted an influx of demobbed service men, at the wooden building on the site of what is now College Court on Park Road. Indeed, the Gazette and Herald reported that the first post war Courses would commence on 24th September 1945. Catering Courses would start in October when Major W Rees Jones was to be ‘released from the from the Forces’. By 1947, the pressure was beginning to tell on the limited facilities in the ‘Wooden Hut’ and negotiations began to find a suitable home for Catering education in Blackpool. ‘Courtfield’, on the corner of Hornby Road and Park Road, was soon identified as a potential site. The house had been owned by the Mather family. Robert Butcher Mather had been Mayor of Blackpool in 1897-98.

Courtfield House

Built in 1897 by Town Freeman, successful businessman and ex Mayor Robert Mather JP, the house was considered to be one of the finest in the borough. The Mather family occupied the house until its sale, by auction in 1945. The name of ‘Courtfield’ was suggested by a family friend, Rev Fr Bernard Vaughan. The Vaughan’s ancestral home in Gloucestershire was called ‘Courtfield’, it had been in the family since 1570.

At a cost of £14,750 (plus £396 costs) the buildings and land were bought amid controversy. There was much disquiet about the cost and perceived competition between the college restaurant facilities and local businesses, although there was no comment about the need for a hotel & catering school.

Courtfield as a centre for Hotel & Catering was actually established in 1947, when students were transferred from the Bakery School on Park Road. Ten years earlier classes had been held in a number of venues in the town, to assist local hoteliers. An Advisory Committee was formed to investigate the establishment of a Catering Department at the College.

The cost of acquiring the building and land of the Courtfield site was £14,750.

The overall cost of ‘The Experiment’ was reported to have been £60,000, which included modifications to the house and equipping it with some of the finest equipment available. Some of the silverware is still being used at the college, badged with the original Blackpool Technical College ‘BTC’. Much of the original polished copper pans that many of us remember cleaning with lemon and salt at the end of our classes, was sold off to provide replacement aluminium pans in the 1970’s. In 1949, ‘Courtfield’ was formally opened in a blaze of publicity with a Lunch for HRH The Duchess of Gloucester in June of that year.

In 1956 it was planned to extend the buildings by demolishing the Coach House at the rear. In the early days, the house was occupied by the Mathers, the Coach House housed 4 Carriages, two horses and a Coachman.

The development involved the addition of ‘prefabs’ at a cost of £9000. However, the Ministry of Education had suggested a larger permanent extension which would accommodate a college refectory, to the side of the house, provided a large dining room, kitchen and servery, increasing the cost of extensions to £21,104, but offsetting the costs with revenues from sales. This became the ‘College Refectory’ and well used by staff, Students and occasionally the public.

Controversy was never far away from the headlines. Disagreements and poor communications between the Council departments in setting up the College was identified as the cause. The Gazette at the time reported that there was additional confusion in the minds of the public and Councillors regarding the Courtfield proposals and those for a new and separate Food Technology building. Very quickly, extensions were agreed, planned and developed to provide a state of the art home for ‘Blackpool Catering College’. The Gazette of 13 October 1951 headlined on the ‘Battle raging over Catering College’, there were references to ‘Frayed Tempers’, especially when College staff salary increases were proposed.

Squabbles about money failed to dent the enthusiasm in neither the department nor the students. In response, The Gazette reported Mr W Rees Jones saying that his proudest moment was when one of the most vociferous critics, the Mayor Cllr Joseph Hill JP, had expressed his pride in the recent student’s results.

Outside Links

In the early days, ‘Courtfield House’ ran as an operating hotel school with all the facilities of a commercial hotel, with Reception, Rooms, Restaurant, and all the back room operations, Laundry and Linen Room, Kitchens and Stores, Cleaners and Pot washing. Press photo’s of the time show, recently ‘demobbed’ students going through the work of every department in the Hotel. As early as 1948, students were exhibiting and demonstrating at the prestigious International Hotel & Catering Exhibition at Olympia in London.

In 1936, Mr E.H. Harrison, Blackpool’s Director of Education, suggested a ‘novel move’. That is, to gain real, practical experience in the business, by taking over a local hotel in the ‘Off Season’. The Education Committee would take over the hotel. There’s no available evidence that the project started, however, the caterers established close and vibrant associations with commercial and welfare catering operations in the town, over many following years. Indeed, as it will be seen, that’s exactly what happened many years later.

Links with the local businesses were enhanced in the 1947 when Blackpool Landladies and the public were offered a three year two nights a week course series of demonstrations and talks on Catering. In the 1950’s this was supplemented by a series of eight demonstrations and talks on Catering. Hugely popular and widely reported, these were held in the Tower Circus. The Gazette reported that over 500 ‘Boarding House & Hotel Keeper’ attended the series of eight demonstrations and talks. These had been arranged via the College by virtue of the close links that Mrs Gloria Swanson, the President of Blackpool Hotel & Boarding House Association had. Mrs Swanson was also the Chairman of the Trades Advisory Committee at the College.

Open Days allowed the public, employers and prospective students to see what was being done in the Department. A programme from May 1952 cites activities going on in 12 rooms in Courtfield house as well as in the Green House and the gardens: demonstrations of buffet work, silver service, Cocktails, flower arranging, . No less than 95 staff and students are detailed in the programme to show people what was possible.

Royal Visit to Lancaster

To mark the 600th Anniversary of the County Palatine, the King, Queens and Princess Margaret accepted an invitation for a two day visit to Lancaster which included a lunch provided and served by Courtfield Students.

In May 1968, Lord Derby the then President of the BHCSS invited the Students to cater for the Queen at Knowsley Hall, Liverpool. The Gazette reported the occasion and described how great the service was at two events catered by the students at the Police College at Hutton, Preston where they catered for the Deputy Lord Lieutenants, guests of Lord Derby. Edward George Villiers Stanley, 17th Earl of Derby was Lord Lieutenant of Lancashire from 1951 to 1968. The Lord Lieutenant is the Queen’s personal representative in the County. Lord Derby had laid the College’s Foundation Stone in September 1934.

The College files are full of letters of thanks for services given to the great and the good, including Prime Minister, Edward Heath and Shirley Williams, Minister of Education and Paymaster General. She held both appointments at the same time.

During the 60’s & 70’s, each year the students had the opportunity to try out new found skills when Courtfield took over the Imperial Hotel in Blackpool, ‘en masse’. The hotel management stepped aside to allow the Courtfield staff and students to take on the operational roles of the hotel, all under the watchful eye of the leading characters of the day: Jim Vincent, Johnny White, Bert Jackson, Vic Hoyle, Peter Blair, Bryan Hill, Gladys Skelton, Harold Hewitson, all taking on the management of hotel departments. Each year group of students took on roles appropriate to their experience, with everyone getting involved in the cleaning and setting up of the Hotel. They were fabulous days of learning with all students remembering them with great affection and recognition of real learning with ‘real’ customers.

Later students would have the opportunity to work at high status venues, like for example Houghton Tower and others, serving Royalty or National figures visiting the area.

Local Newspapers were filled with comment and editorial on all manner of topics relating to Courtfield, staff, students, officials, events, Prize Giving, Exam results and Open Days, and just ‘Goings on’, even Menus and recipes. Occasionally the comment was negative. Some of the local businesses objected to the success of the restaurants, large numbers of students and the public preferred to use the college refectory rather than local businesses.

Sometimes adverse comments came from politicians who objected to the education budget being hijacked by maintenance of catering equipment. Local schools jealous of the resources given to the Hotel & Catering Department rather than the local schools who argued vociferously against resources allocated to the College. Some even scoffed at the prospects of training and education for ‘chambermaids, waiters and cooks’.

Amongst the more positive reporting were references to Prizes awarded and Teachers from other institutions coming to Blackpool to ‘see how it’s done’. Some of the Politicians argued that Blackpool should be the National Centre for Hotel & Catering Education. There were frequent pictures of Students, staff and celebrities being served by them.

As commercial and educational pressures followed, those ‘take-overs’ became fewer and eventually non-existent by the mid 1960’s. There was a ‘nod’ to the practice for a number of years when final year students came off timetable, each group in turn to run the 3 restaurants in ‘C’ Block as commercial operations without intervention but with the support of the staff. So, for example, Jack Sumner in his Marketing Class, would set up a Marketing Plan with the students for their restaurant operation. Again pressures for time and space eventually finished the practice in the late 1980’s.

New Head and the move to Bispham.

The new College campus was developed at Bispham, Ashfield Road and the brand new, multi storey building was allocated for catering, with what were first class facilities: 6 floors, 5 new restaurants 6 training kitchens, a Pastrywork kitchen and a Larder preparation room along with an Accommodation suite, Science Labs, a library and a new feature: a ‘Call Order Restaurant’ modelled on the latest contemporary restaurants in London and many US city’s. This indeed was ‘Cutting Edge’. In today’s parlance, the ‘Fine Dining’ restaurant was the Machin Room, named after Alderman Machin, one of the key local figures responsible for the decision to build a new College.

Following the closure of Courtfield site, the new ‘C’ Block (‘C’ for Courtfield, now ‘Cleveleys’) quickly became a new home for the staff and the students. Managers in Morning suits, Waiters in Tails and chefs in whites with tall hats, mixed and mingled in the corridors appreciating and aspiring to jobs in the best that the industry could offer. Restaurant staff was only made up of final year students, who were inspected each day for clean hands nails, clean shoes and for their personal ‘odour’, with defaulters being given short shrift or the ‘Hair-drier’ treatment. Geoff Cowell saw the ‘Tail Coats’ as an anachronism when they moved to Bispham, but not for long, no new students bought them. John Whyte did not agree, but the College moved with the times and the Tail Coat era was over.

Many students went on to become Captains of the industry all over the world.

The 1970’s and early 80’s saw the ‘Hey-Day’ of Catering Education at Blackpool: a Faculty of 90+ staff, 1000 students, graduating 400 per year with high quality qualifications into the Hospitality business of the world. However, with the fame and popularity came the increasing demand for space and staff. The Faculty had reached a point of ‘Critical Mass’. It was time to look at the structure. It made sense at that time to separate out the so called ‘Craft’, or operations courses from the ‘Management’ provision, forming the Department of Catering Operations.

In addition, pressure was mounting to support education for those not able to join the mainstream courses either because of ability or disability, together with the need to support employability courses under the Governments YTS (Youth raining Scheme) and the ‘TOPS’ programme – (Training Opportunities Scheme, designed for adults.). Space was found in the old Somerset Avenue School site to provide kitchen and food service facilities, funded through Central Government. This author and others drew plans for the redevelopment of the site along with plant and equipment lists. The courses were very successful, but short lived, coinciding with the decision to move back into Courtfield.

By now Courtfield House was in a very poor state, occupied by the Arts Department and variously used as a studio and a Drop In space for all sorts of folk. The conditions there deteriorated badly and there was considerable damage to the structure of the building.

After much thought the decision was taken to move the Craft students – Chefs, Waiters, Receptionists, Housekeepers, Pastry Chefs and Bakers and the Butchers and courses back into Courtfield House and the Park Road site, now in an almost derelict state.

The decision coincided with the recruitment of a stylish, exciting young Chef Lecturer, who was making a name for himself in East Lancashire. Graham Wilkinson arrived at the College as a Principal Lecturer in Cookery & Food Production, he brought flair, talent and experience from the top UK establishments including Buckingham Palace. Graham and this Author planned and executed the move back to Courtfield after a major refurbishment of equipment and the building. Courtfield was back!

The move back to Courtfield

The decision to move back to Courtfield House was not universally popular. Staff and students considered it a retrograde step. But the move went on in any case. A number of us considered the move to be a rebirth of what was. Realisation was somewhat harsher. The building was in a mess but true to the word of College management and the goodwill of some of the staff and effort from other departments all moved ahead in the Summer holidays of 1985.

Like the initial move to Bispham, it was largely carried out by staff without professional movers. Funding was helped greatly by staff and students who took over a hospitality unit at the Lytham Open Golf, and the following year did the same again at another venue, we were voted the best independent hospitality unit on both occasions. Individuals were encouraged to make donations which bought dining room chairs and other essentials.

In spite of hard work some classes were not ready for the start of the new Term in September. Ivor Hixon, the Department Head at the time, recalls:

In spite of our best efforts we were not completely ready for the September start. Bakery and Meat Technology were able to run as usual. First year catering students were catered for within the existing resources, supported by part-time paid work in local establishments. The start for day release students was postponed until after the Illuminations, in November, which suited everyone.

The major problem was accommodating senior catering students. Graham Wilkinson, solved this by using his contacts and considerable charm to place them all at the prestigious Gleneagles Hotel in Scotland. Students would be working alongside a skilled, experienced and highly qualified team. During this highly desirable internship, Gladys Skelton and Yvonne Trotter were the resident tutors who taught, mothered, cared for and kept all in line until the end of October.

The Decline of Courtfield.

Nothing remains static, the demand for hospitality programmes declined, as did many of the craft courses. Smaller colleges that had been ‘Feeder’ colleges in the past, were given permission to run their own courses. Private providers and the larger hospitality companies decided to run their own training. Delivery and assessment of Trainees was undertaken in the workplace rather than in ‘Realistic Work Environments’. Consequently, the now depleted Craft programmes were moved back to Bispham. Eventually, the College sold off Courtfield House and its land to developers. They immediately cashed in on the artefacts of what had been a beautiful Victorian house: its marble fireplaces, carved wood doors and brass door furniture, ceiling mouldings, stained glass windows, even its oak floorboards.

From the mid 90’s a new reorganisation at the college dismantled the teaching organisation for Hotel & Catering, many of the long serving, highly qualified, but expensive staff were encouraged to retire. The faculties of Food, Leisure and Hairdressing were merged, with a new Head of Department and by the end of the 90’s the Hotel & Catering provision at the college was a shadow of its former self.

The Legacy of those times, at the peak of its reputation as a world class provider of Hotel and Catering skills ( now referred to as Hospitality) is carried by those who remember it. Never to be repeated.

The name of Courtfield lives on in our memories as a centre of vocational excellence in Hospitality management and Culinary Arts.

 

Editors Note: This is a short extract from a longer and more detailed History of Courtfield, made available to the Local History Department at Blackpool Central Library with pictures and memorabilia.

MPC
Feb 2016

The ‘Blackpool Regiment’: A brief history of 137 (A) Fd Regt RA

RA Badge

Cap Badge of the Royal Artillery

Little has been written about the untimely end of the Regiment and the events, casualties and memorials that immortalise it. Whilst I have written about its legacy and remembrance, there is still sufficient curiosity as to its origins and history.

This Blog posting coincides with the anniversary of the dramatic events of Christmas and New Year of 1942.

The story of the ‘Blackpool Regiment’ is a tragic one; formed and virtually destroyed within three and a half years. Indeed, they were shipped into a theatre of war in November 1941 and eliminated over Christmas and the New Year of 1942. The Regiment was never reformed.

The Regiment was instigated locally by local people, local people enlisted, trained, fought and died in their hundreds; some in action and some at the hands of a ruthless enemy, in deplorable conditions in the ‘Death Camps’ of the Far East. Some died simply with the strain of the journey home. In this story there is little to celebrate other than the courage of those who fought and died or returned home.

Although there was a longer history of the ‘Kirkham Battery’ of the Royal Artillery, the ‘Blackpool Battery’ had is beginnings in the Victorian era, its forebear units were and remained ‘Territorial’ Units. In 1938, with the threat of war, the ‘Field Brigades’ that had served so well in World War 1 and later, were re-designated ‘Field Regiments’ and reorganised; 88 Regiment’s 349 & 351 Batteries were merged to form a larger 351 Blackpool  Battery.

In April 1939 the local Royal Artillery Battery, the 351st (11 West Lancs) Battery (Blackpool), of the 88th (2nd West Lancs) Field Regiment RA (TA), had its Headquarters in Preston. As such, in October 1939, this Battery was quickly mobilised to France with the British Expeditionary Force, being finally withdrawn from Dunkirk in June 1940.  Like the Blackpool Regiment would go on to serve in Malaya and be captured at Singapore.

From early 1939, proposals were being made to the West Lancashire Territorial Army Association, drawn up by Major Eric Read, to move the Unit Annual Camp to later in the year, so as to enable its troops to maximise their earnings during the Summer Season. The same proposals suggested a dedicated Headquarters in Blackpool to accommodate the particular nature of employment in the Resort.

The outcome was an agreement, dependent on recruitment, to establish what we now know as the ‘Blackpool Regiment’, with a strength of 548 Men with 32 Officers, with its Headquarters in Blackpool. The Mayor Cllr Duckworth, declared that Blackpool was an ideal centre for the Regiment because of its position as an administrative centre.

Recruitment for the Battery

In April 1939, the Gazette included a piece on a major recruiting drive for the Territorial Field Army, which by decree of the Minister of War, was to be doubled in size. It reported that the present strength of the Blackpool Battery (351) was just 100 men with seven Officers. It promised rapid promotion from the Ranks. The article goes on to raise the prospect of a regiment being formed. In the event 351 was to become the nucleus of the new Regiment, which was initially to be known as 2nd 88th Field Regiment RA.

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Yorkshire Street Drill Hall

Another article refers to the ‘honour’ of the Town having its own ‘Pals’ Regiment and of the efforts to secure the prospect. All Council energy was directed at lobbying Lord Derby and Col CT Brown, Chairman of the West Lancs TA Association, for the Regiment. They refer to the ‘wholehearted’ support from the people of Blackpool. However, the key element in getting the Regiment would be the number of recruits that come forward. A major recruiting drive would start with a parade of the Battery and an open day at the Yorkshire Street Headquarters. There was also a call to arms by the Chief Constable, EH Holmes at Bloomfield Road.

At the same time there were grumbles in St Annes that recruitment wasn’t going so well for 436 Regiment of the 62nd Searchlight Unit. Its own TA Unit.

By the end of April, recruitment for the Blackpool Regiment was complete with an estimated 580 men signed on in 13 Days and a waiting list was being prepared. The Recruiting Station at the Town Hall was operating from 07.00 until Midnight. The Gazette reported that if recruitment at the same rate continued, there would be sufficient to establish an additional Infantry Regiment too.

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Blackpool Recruits

With sufficient numbers 137 (Army) Field Regiment, RA (TA) colloquially known as the Blackpool Regiment, was formed up on 17 June 1939.

Training routines in the new Regiment that had been designed for 100 men and just four 1918 pattern artillery pieces had to quickly develop to accommodate almost six times the number and new Artillery pieces.

In late Summer 1939, 137 went through a somewhat unsettling time when 88 Regt, it’s parent Regular Unit, preparing to move to active service with the BEF to France, exchanged some of its own younger soldiers, for older members of 137. Whilst made in good faith, this left 137 with more young men, some needing to travel to Blackpool for training.

The War Diaries

The available War Diaries make interesting reading. More properly they record the Daily Orders and principal activities of the Regiment. At that time Headquarters are in Buchanan Street Drill Hall. The men are billeted in Talbot Road Bus Station, until there were complaints by the Medical Officer. Rawlings (1972) reports that ‘many of us were billeted in our own home, because of a shortage of accommodation in Blackpool’. He reports a move to accommodation in ‘Brook Mill’ in Kirkham

The Diaries begin in early September 1939, indeed on the 1st page, the Diary records the declaration of War, in a matter of fact way: ‘..a state of War exists between us and Germany’. Later in the day a telegram was received by 137 Regiment, from Headquarters RA , via 88 Field Regiment ‘War has broken out with Germany’.

These daily records shed light on the establishment of the two initial Batteries in Lancaster (350 Bty, based in Dallas Rd) and Preston (349 Bty). A third Battery (501 Bty) would be added in early March 1941, in preparation for deployment to the Far East. Otherwise they describe the usual military and the routine diet of Drill, Parades, Inspections, Battery training. Of interest are the names of the key characters in the Regiment, their movement, courses and postings; Attachments and Detachments. The men rarely feature, except in respect of the frequent Courts Marshall, interviews with the Commanding Officer, charges and penalties. Of special interest in these early days are the mentions of ‘Desertion’, ‘Absences without Leave’, ‘Immature’ (under age) Gunners and one young Gunner charged by the Civil Police for ‘Housebreaking’.

Perhaps as portents, on 22 November 1939, a talk was given to 349 Bty & RHQ by a Lt Col Davson on ‘Burma’.

It is also clear that the local entertainment centres and theatres regularly made the shows and dances available to the whole Regiment. The ‘Civil’ role for the Gunners of 137 also features Guards of Honour, help with snow clearing and the Harvest, as well as the routine patrols and Guard Duties.

In these early days there are references to equipment (including Steel Helmets), weapons and vehicle shortages and the impact on Regimental and Battery training. There are Orders and Signals from the parent units 42 Div, 88 Fd Regt RA and between Regimental HQ and the three Batteries; there are arrangements, competitions and sports between other Region based units and visits and inspections by Brigade staff. Signals and Orders include items on behaviour in uniform, dress standards, driving accidents, carrying Gas Masks at all times and not discussing military topics when out and about.

3 March 1941 saw the raising of a new Battery, 501, while the Regiment was under Artillery training at Larkhill, the Royal School of Artillery.

The first mention of a move away from Blackpool is recorded on 22 April 1940 when details are given for the Advance Party move to Oulton Park Camp, near Tarporley in Cheshire. They move on 25 April a Section by Road and the rest by rail from Blackpool North Station. Packing and movement of equipment and kit goes on through April. The main party is to parade, in full kit, in Greatcoats, with Respirators and Steel Helmets for embarkation by rail at Blackpool North at 08.30 on 1 May. They will detrain at Winsford Station and march by road to the tented Oulton Park Camp, about 6 miles.

After the routine inspections and parades the Regiment settled into a pattern of Troop and Battery training, Drills and Lectures.

On June 5 1940 the Regiment is informed ‘Ready to Move’ within 24 hours, to Liverpool, without tentage and accommodation stores and on arrival without Billets. Searches for Billets yielded the Old College and a School in Nile Street, Liverpool. The Unit is ordered to ‘Stand To’, with a Mobile Section moved to assist cover of Speke Aerodrome, with orders to ‘Fire’ if required. Following a Recce of the City plans are made to move the Regiment to Knowsley Park. The diary reports still shortages of equipment, including 1/25000 maps, essential for detailed ranging of Artillery fire.

Throughout August the Regiment is training and field exercises. During the night of 28 August there was a heavy Air Raid during which 2 heavy calibre , High Explosive bombs were dropped on the Camp. There were no casualties and no damage. The Raids lasted throughout September and reports of a paratrooper landing in the Park caused searches throughout the night.

The Regiment moved to Larkhill in Wiltshire, in November 1940. 349 Bty was first, with RHQ and 350 Bty by the 3rd week. December is recorded as  ‘Nothing of any importance to relate’. The unwritten objective of the move according to Rawlings, was to provide ‘experience’ in the training of young Officers.

April 1941 saw a visit to the Regiment by the King and Queen. More especially a demonstration by ‘B’ Troop of 349 Battery. By August 12th notice had been received for Mobilisation to ‘Service Overseas (Tropical Climate)’.

On 27 September 1941, the whole Regiment entrained, in 3 trains for a 12 hour journey to the ‘Port of Embarkation’, Liverpool. On 30 September the Unit sailed by convoy on the HMT B19, the 27,000 ton ex-luxury liner ‘Dominion Monarch’. She had been requisitioned and converted to accommodate 1500 Troops from a 525 First Class passenger vessel. Although armed for Troop carrying, she had only 2 Guns, one salvaged from an 1899 Frigate, HMS Venerable and an Anti-Aircraft gun who’s arc of fire had to be limited, lest she shot at her own funnels.

In to the ‘Bear Pit’.

Before the story describes the involvement of 137, it’s important to understand the strategic machinations in the region prior to and just after the arrival of 137 in Singapore.

Since the beginning of the War, Japan had an envious eye on the rich resources of the British controlled Malay Peninsula.  Especially since the United States imposed ‘Containment’ policies, in order to cut vital exports of oil, coal, iron & steel to Japan, in a bid to constrain its militaristic expansion plans.  Encouraged by Germany’s early successes, particularly against the British, together with America’s absence from the War, plans were finalised for continued expansion in South East Asia.

The Japanese had invaded the Malay Peninsula on 7 December 1941 just a couple of hours before the attack on Pearl Harbour. They landed at Pantai Sabak, 10 miles from the RAF Airfield at Khota Baru, British Malaya, close to the Eastern border with Thailand. They made rapid progress West and South. To the West, the Gurkhas put up a spirited fight between Changlun and Asun but were soon overpowered with the capture and loss of 350 men. At about the same time the Japanese had reached Jitra to the South. The next day, the 11th Indian Div was ordered to withdraw from Jitra towards Gurun in the South, just North of Sungai Petani.

137 Regt disembarked at Singapore at 18.30 on Nov 28th and immediately entrained for Kajang, South East of Kuala Lumpur, reaching there at 06.30 the following day and marched directly to Kajang Camp to join 11 Indian Division. 88 Regt, (which included Blackpool men) landed at the same time to join 9 Div.

The Diary shows somewhat casually, that ‘Japan declared War on Great Britain’ on 7 December 1941.

137 had been detailed to defend the RAF Airfield at Alor Star. On 9 December, RHQ and the 2 Batteries, (349 & 350) moved by road to Ipoe, North of Kuala Lumpur, a journey of 145 miles, then on to Sungei Patani, a further 110 miles North on the West Coast of the Malay Peninsula and almost due west of the Japanese landing site. Immediately, 350 Bty was in action.

137MapsAThe Japanese had launched a full-frontal attack on Jitra. 501 Bty joined the fight on the night of 10/11 December. The Diary for the 12th December describes in detail, the attack and the response from all three Batteries, now located on the Tanjon Pau Rubber Estate. 349 & 350 Btys were in action in the defence of Jitra, in Monsoon conditions, with 501 located at RAF Alor Star close by. On 14 December, 137, less 349 Bty withdrew to a position west of Pendang via the Jitra Road, now congested with retreating Troops and civilians. Within hours, they were ordered to withdraw south beyond the River Muda, leaving 501 Bty in position at Lalang, who would rejoin the Regiment safely the following day, the 16th.

Over the next 5 days, the 137 withdrawal continues via Bagan Sarai, Sungai Siput and Chemor. A further move South to Tasek on the 23rd incurred casualties among 501 Bty: 4 Dead and 6 wounded and the loss of 2 vehicles, when they were dive-bombed by a Japanese Fighter.

The quiet of 24/25th December was shattered on the 26th when the enemy was spotted and for the next 5 hours concentrated fire on the Japanese positions. The action continued on 27th and the Regiment moved again to hides in Dipang. 501 Bty moved to Bidor via Kampar, followed by the rest of 137. Action continued throughout New Year.

The author of the War Diary, finished the Month of December by recalling three ‘Humorous Incidents’.  Coombes (1948), himself a Battery Commander (350 Btty) in 137, gives a graphic and forensic account of the fighting withdrawal of 11 Div down the Malay Peninsula. He does so, Day by day; Battery by Battery; Troop by Troop, supplementing those recorded in the Regiment’s War Diary.

Death of the C.O.

The Brigade Commander, Brig Stewart deployed 137 just north of the Slim River, 350 Battery detailed to provide a 3rd Line of defence and ‘Harrassing Fire’, a few miles north at Trolak.

349 & 501 Batteries were resting  in the midst of The Cluny Rubber plantation, a few miles south, they had been in action for a month, non-stop! Regimental Headquarters were located a few miles further south. The relative peace was shattered by an artillery barrage approximately from the position of the Batteries. First the 2IC, Major Owtram, leapt onto a motorbike to see what was going on. He was stopped in time not to encounter eighteen Japanese Tanks on the road, returning to HQ.  The Commanding Officer,  Lt Col George Holme, immediately wanted to know the situation and insisted he look for himself. He grabbed the motorbike and set off in the direction of the barrage.  He ran into the patrolling Tanks and was shot dead. Major Owtram describes him as ‘A very brave and able Soldier’.

At 03.30 on the 7th, the forward positions including a Field Hospital and Brigade Headquarters at, and around, Trolak Bridge, including 350, came under heavy and sustained fire.

350 Battery Commander heard from locals that tanks had broken through the 1st and 2nd Lines of Defence. He ordered men and guns  to retreat towards  Slim River. Japs drove past their position, leaving infantry to mop up. Although two Gurkha Battalions had been sent to support, there were no Anti Tank guns. The Battery withdrew at speed, along the road past the Cluny Estate, 349 and 501 completely unaware. In pursuit of the withdrawing troops and Artillery came Jap Light Tanks. On discovering the two batteries of 137 in the Rubber Plantation, opened fire, scattering the men, causing confusion and according to Rawlings, killing 273.

The Gunners put up a fight as best they could. Eventually bombed and strafed into submission, Owtram, organised the remains of 349 & 501 Batteries (about 200) into two groups, to go south across the Slim River. One group was led by himself and one by Jim Stoker, the Planter accompanying them. This group was quickly captured. Owtram’s group managed to get across the river, via the damaged Railway bridge (it had been blown up by allied Engineers), swimming and a rope bridge. Many of those making the crossing were without weapons, food or medical supplies, many hurt, some badly injured. Once over the bridge, Owtram was asked to take five volunteers to stay back to ‘discourage’ Japs from crossing.  He did so with volunteers from 137.

(Note: The Official History reports: In 5 hrs, 30 tanks + 1000 infantry advanced over 3 bridges, 35 km, through 2 Bdes. 2 Bns destroyed before firing a shot, 3 Bns dispersed/scattered into countryside to the point of complete collapse, 2 Bns still intact. Overall, 500 Casualties + 3000 taken Prisoner. 1 month’s supply for 2 Bdes; 50 Bren Carriers; dozens of trucks.)

Perhaps somewhat pointedly, the War Diary entries for 137 Fd Regt end at this point. The file closes with copies of the Operational Orders and Manning  and Casualty States. However, this is not the end of the story.

Rawlings goes on to record the ‘tactical withdrawal’ of the Batteries towards Singapore. Retreating and fighting with great ferocity as they went. He tells of the dead and those left behind and of the attempts to remain a coherent force and of the attempts to reach ‘safety’ in Singapore.

350 Battery had managed to escape the events at Cluny  and made it back to British Lines at Kuala Lumpur, via Batu Caves, then on to Malacca, were re-equipped and attached to 155 Fd Regt RA and fought on, guarding the retreating Indian Australian and British Troops heading for Singapore. At this point, the Japs were temporarily stopped.

Those of the second group of 137 who escaped, that managed to get beck to Singapore were transferred to their sister Regiment, 88 Fd Regt RA whose numbers included Blackpool lads. They continued to fight, initially at crossing points on the Johore Straits, moving south with the Artillery they could find,  in places we can recognise today, The ‘Vicarage’ and ‘Raffles Hotel’, eventually, fighting with their backs to the sea on the Southern coast of Singapore.

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Drawing of 350 Battery locations, from Leo Rawlings book

In another account, Taylor, (2003) recounts 501 Battery’s 2Lt Richard Hartley’s, story.

‘….by 2nd January they were outflanked and the road to Singapore was cut off behind them. Under cover of intense artillery fire, in which presumably 501 Battery was engaged, they fell back along the main road to prepared positions at Trolak, about five miles in front of the Slim River.

On 7th January at 0330 the Japanese overran the roadblocks and defences at Trolak, five miles north of the Slim River.

Half a dozen small Japanese tanks and a company of about 100 infantry in trucks then raced to the river, where the exhausted defenders, including 2Lt R Hartley and 501 Battery, were caught completely off guard. They had not expected Trolak to fall so quickly and were given no warning that the Japanese were through.

The tanks caught three battalions of 12 Brigade – two Gurkha and one of the 5/14 Punjab Regt – marching along the road and machine-gunned them. They caught 501 and 349 Batteries breakfasting by the roadside in the Cluny rubber estate, and shelled and machine-gunned them before they could get their artillery into position.’

Taylor goes on to describe the retreat to Singapore by the remaining 200 men left of 137 Regt. The Party decided not to surrender but to rejoin the British Lines at Kuala Lumpur, some 50 miles south of their position. They split into two groups, in the hope that one would get through. Hartley’s group made it but the other was quickly captured. The surviving group, although exhausted moved through the Jungle by day and the railway by night to Tan Jong Malim. An Australian Transport Unit found them and took them as far South as they were able – Batu Caves on the outskirts of Kuala Lumpur on the 9th January. The Group never found the ‘British Lines’, however on the 10th, in Kuala Lumpur, they found a train for Singapore and ‘Fell into it exhausted’. At Tebong, about 80 or so miles down the track, the train was attacked by three aircraft and Hartley and seven others were killed. He was buried there by ‘the other lads from Blackpool’. The rear of the train was wrecked, the front half was detached and carried on to Singapore, where the remnants were formed into 3 Troops to carry out Aerodrome repairs and defences for the next 2 weeks without a break, pending the issue of 75mm guns.

The Progress of 350 Battery.

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The Battery disposition, at Trolak and the Slim River, early January 1942.  (Adapted from Coombes, 1948, p 41)

Coombes (1948) gives details of the positions held by all 137 Batteries. On the 5th January the CO of 137, Col Holmes, had received a letter from the Corps Commander, General Heath, saying how pleased he was with the ‘excellent work of the Regiment throughout the campaign’. In the small hours of the 7th, 350 Battery withdrew to pre-set positions at Tan Jong Malim. Their withdrawal from their fighting positions a few miles north of Trolak was made in rapid order, racing past the other Battery positions just a few miles from Tan Jong Malim about 10 miles south, at Slim Village, by the Slim River.

350 Battery was to come under command of 155 Field Regiment RA and move back to Kuala Kubu Bahru. Here they were joined by Lt Hartley & Capt Hilton arrived with 8 men from 501 Battery, having escaped from the bombardment at the positions at Slim Village. They were supplanted into 350 Battery and then on to Rasa, in a tropical rainstorm, where they were to ‘take on the battle!‘. Here they came across more of the remnants of the Regiment from Slim Village, who were integrated into 350 Battery. Even at that point, it was hope that the Blackpool Regiment could be reformed.

On the 12th January, 350 was ordered South to Malacca, and they moved into a Rubber Estate 5 miles north of there. Respite was brief. On the 14th, the next destination was Kluang, 110 miles further south, again in torrential rain.

On the 16th, the Battery was ordered to support an infantry counter attack by the Australians at Bakri.  After a short action, they were withdrawn to Yong Peng. While there there were attacked by air and were in action continually.

Bull (1999) gives as detailed account of the ‘withdrawal’ as can be made, from testimonies and the few facts from 88 Regiments War Diaries. He quotes Leo Rawlings of 137:

‘Yong Peng, where Captain Alan Grime, of 137.. bravely distinguished himself in action, was probably the last main stand by Allied troops of any account before withdrawal to Johore and finally Singapore. My own Unit ‘C’ Troop of 350 Batt 137, held a gun position for four days. Partly hidden by Banana trees, our Command Post  in a small Planters house, we fired an almost continuous barrage on a variety of targets. Heavy supplies of ammo were piled high behind the guns and the intentions was, we were told, to make a big last stand. At dawn on the fourth day, heavy attacks by Dive Bombers blasted us out of our position’.

The withdrawal of the 137 Remnants and 350 Battery to Singapore continued, next stop on the 23rd January, was Johore Bahru, the last ‘ditch’ before the move to the island of Singapore. it was here that the story of how Major Owtram and the ‘remnants’ managed get back thus far, by stealth and good fortune.

On the 26th, the decision was taken by the High Command to evacuate the Malayan Peninsula, to be completed between 27th and the 30th of January, and to prepare for a ’12 month Siege’.

On the 27th, 350 were involved in a first ‘rescue’ mission, retrieving stocks from a warehouse before the enemy could get access. Over a couple of days, Coombes records the battery managing to rescue ‘1000 tins of Pineapple; 6 lorry loads of rice, flour, coffee,and sugar; 400 x 4 gallon cans of Paraffin; 2 x 600 gallon bowsers of water; 50 tents; mattresses; beds; nets, Fire Extinguishers; buckets; cooking stoves; 1million Capstan cigarettes’.

By the 1st of February, a further withdrawal on to the Island, initially covering the  causeway across the Johore Straits, under command of their ‘Parent’ unit, 88 Field Regiment, from Preston, enabling the recovery of infantry and armour, in advance of the Imperial Japanese Army. The battery fought continually, until the 10th Feb when they were withdrawn to the perimeter of Singapore City and further action, action which involved firing over 10,000 rounds of high explosive.

On the 10th to 12th, there was another ‘rescue’ mission. The Singapore Base Ordnance Depot was heavily bombed and caught fire, exploding valuable shells and ammunition. Coombes tells of his drive to investigate to the Bomb Dump to assess the situation and the subsequent rescue of initially 500 rounds of ammunition for his field guns, by 2pm on the second day, 2 lorries had deposited 2000 rounds with his guns, from the burning, exploding arms dump.

The Surrender

In spite of earlier instruction on 13 February, to be prepared to destroy their guns, at 20.30 on 15 February a ceasefire was declared. All units were to collect  in Unit areas and ‘Stand Fast’. ‘All troops were to be disarmed, except for a force of 1000 of all ranks at the disposal of the IJA to support the Police.’ No further details were given. Immediately before the Ceasefire, ‘C’ Troop of 350 fired 160 rounds  in rapid fire over Raffles Hotel. Next morning ‘C’ Troop managed ‘to initiate a major and mysterious fire, which devastated the cooking equipment, the Small Arms Store,  the 75mm Ammunition Store, the Battery’s vehicles and guns.

Payne (1980), in his recorded interviews for the Imperial War Museum, said that he and some other survivors found some old French 75mm Guns and set them up outside the Raffles Hotel,  in Singapore. That was the last recollection, before what is euphemistically referred to as ‘The Fall of Singapore’, when 85000 British and Commonwealth Troops surrendered to the Japanese on 15th February 1942. A further 25000 Troops had been lost in the retreat down the Malay Peninsula.

This was the real end of the Blackpool Regiment as a Fighting Unit. Coombes declares the price of the campaign to the Regiment of 28 killed in action, another 184 would die at the hands of there captors, out of a total complement of 700.

In January of 1942 Churchill had told the CinC India, Gen Wavell that Singapore was to fight, with no question of surrender, ‘until after fighting in the ruins of Singapore.

Gen Percival realising his limitations, split the defence of the island into 3 Sectors, one of which was the ‘North Sector’ west of Changi, and included the closest coast to the mainland. The Sector was to be defended by III Corps which comprised 18th British Div and 11th Indian Div. The Japanese attack when it came was sudden and vicious, with many enemy infantry simply walking across the Johore Strait when they realised the water was only four feet deep at low tide. With Japanese air superiority, defence was piecemeal. Successes in the North sector were insufficient to stem the inevitable overrun of the Island. The surrender took place on 15 February 1942 just 80 days after 137 had landed.

Prisoners of War

Many of the Regiment who had fought and had to retreat through Malaya to Singapore were then subject to the surrender by General Percival, Chief of the British and Commonwealth forces on the island. The decision to surrender has been a controversial one. On the one hand he did so to save lives of his forces and the civilian population of Singapore. On the other he did so to a smaller force than expected and to the surprise of the Japanese. Far from saving the lives of the inhabitants, many would die at the hands of the occupiers.

Following the ‘Fall of Singapore’ accounts of treatment by the Japanese are limited to personal memoirs, biographies and contributions to official histories. Losses on the Burma Railway alone are estimated at 12,000. Units like 137 Regt lost half of their number to maltreatment and war casualties.

The Imperial War Museum records not only the stories of individuals and Units imprisoned on the Island but also those who lost their lives on transport ships either as a result of appalling conditions on board, or the colossal loss life from sinking by Allied Naval Forces. It’s estimated that around 11,000 died en route to forced labour camps in Japan and Japanese Territories. A total of 23 ships transporting PoWs were sunk by Allied action on those diabolical journeys.

The ‘Death Railway’.

Variously referred to as the Thai-Burma Railway, the Siam–Burma Railway or ultimately, the ‘Death Railway’, the railway was to link Thailand and Burma The route had been surveyed by the British in the 1880s. Plans were never developed because of the thick jungle, lack of contiguous supply routes and the potential for disease.

image001The Japanese took up the challenge of its building in October 1942, in order to provide logistic support to a planned attack of the British in the Indian sub-continent.

PoWs and Asian work gangs were to be used to build it. It would run for 260 miles.

Some of the 137 men who had escaped the surrender of Singapore had made their way to Sumatra only to be captured there and shipped to the Burma end of the Railway to work.

Those captured in Singapore were rounded up from camps there to work both at the Thailand end and at stages along the route. Some 60,000 allied troops were used and abused, out of the labour force of around 200,000. 12,000 troops died or were killed during its construction. The railway was completed by October 1943 and involved hacking through jungle, constructing deep cuttings and embankments, tunnels and 688 bridges as well as over 60 stations, in the most appalling conditions.

On its completion and in spite of allied bombings, the line carried two complete Divisions of Troops and in excess of 50 000 tonnes of food and ammunition to Burma for the Japanese offensive into India. Allied Troops and Asian Workers were also used to maintain and repair the tracks until the War ended in 1945.

Homecoming

Throughout October 1945 the Gazette was full of reports, stories, photographs and accounts of treatment of returning 137 Gunners.

Amongst the accounts of the ‘Fall of Singapore’, one story recounted by Rawlins & Duncan in their 1972 book ‘And the Dawn Came Like Thunder’ recorded the dreadful experiences, conditions and hellish life of PoWs, including those of 137. It was based in part on the personal experiences of Bill Duncan. Flower (questioned Duncan’s account and dismissed it as unfounded since ‘Duncan was never a PoW in the Far East’).

Others tell of the bayoneting of hospital staff, patients and doctors by Japanese Soldiers. Another makes the case in favour of the dropping of the Atom Bomb on Hiroshima & Nagasaki in August of that year.

Some years later, the Gazette reports that the National FEPOW Conference held their Annual Dinner and Ball at the Norbreck Castle, when the Ballroom entrance was dressed to look like a Japanese Guardhouse, complete with Guards in uniform. I can only hope that the revellers found the idea funny, if ironic.

Epilogue

For many years after the War, two major organisations held the stories of those who survived the retreat and surrender of Singapore, The Burma Star Association and the Far East Prisoners of War Association (FEPOW). Often those stories were only shared between those who had experienced it and the trauma of servitude under a brutal military regime. Certainly the men who returned were mere shadows of themselves pre War, both physically and mentally. A Regiment of fit young men launched into War as a new and inexperienced Regiment, established to fight at home, in defence of Britain. Many would have found the War exciting, challenging, then only to spend 3 years in a hellish prison, to die in squalor, illness and without mercy from their Captors.

The stories of those prisoners have been told and reported, drawn, filmed and recorded, we must never forget what the survivors of the Blackpool Regiment went through, never.

As tourists travel to far away places in what is now Malaysia, visiting the shops and sites of the Modern Far East, will they ever consider what made those sites available to our generation? What might have happened if the Japanese had won the War there? We must also be wary of the ‘Disneyfication’ of the sites of battles and those of significance to the ‘Forgotten Army’ that fought in Malaysia: ‘The Burma Railway’, ‘The Bridge on the Kwai’, ‘Changi Prison’ and the multitude of war grave sites and the rest.

Part 2 of this History of the Blackpool Regiment, deals with the survival of the men of the Regiment, Their repatriation and Homecoming.

MPC
Oct/Nov 2015

Editors Note:
This piece is extracted from a more comprehensive history of the Blackpool Regiment, to be lodged with the Local History Dept at Blackpool Central Library.

Sources:
Note: The collection below provides an outline of the sources used. The fuller history, held at Blackpool Central Library provides more detail.

Books:

Bull, S., 1999, Lancashire Gunners at War: The 88th Field Regiment, 1939-1945, Carnegie Publishing

Coombes, J.H.H., 1948, Banpong Express, Self published. Available at:  https://sgp1.digitaloceanspaces.com/proletarian-library/singapore-malaysia/Major%20J.%20H.%20H.%20Coombes/Banpong%20Express%20(1423)/Banpong%20Express%20-%20Major%20J.%20H.%20H.%20Coombes.pdf

Farrell, B., 2015, The Defence and Fall of Singapore, Monsoon

Flower, S.J., Prisoners of War and Their Captors, p228, in Moore, B. & Fedorowich, K., 1996, Captors and Captives on the Burma – Thailand Railway, p228, Berg.

Gillies, M., 2011, The Barbed Wire University: The Real Lives of Prisoners of War in the Second World War, Aurum.

Kirby, S.W., 2015, The War Against Japan. Vol 1. The Loss of Singapore (HMSO- Official History of WWII – Military), 232Celsius.

Owtram, C., 2017, 1000 Days on the River Kwai, Pen & Sword Military.

Rawlins, L., 1972, And The Dawn came like thunder, Chapman.

Simpson, A.W., 1955 (approx),  ‘288 (2nd West Lancashire) Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery, Territorial Army’. Published by Gazette Printers

Thompson, P., 2005, The Battle for Singapore: The True Story of the Greatest Catastrophe of World War II, Hatchette Digital.

Websites:

TA History at:
http://www.army.mod.uk/reserve/31793.aspx

Blackpool Chronology at:
http://www.blackpoolhistory.co.uk/

A personal account:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ww2peopleswar/stories/92/a7428792.shtml

Taylor, R., 2003, Written account of 2Lt Robert Hartley at:
http://www.far-eastern-heroes.org.uk/2nd_Lt_Robert_Hartley/

Letter with an account of the death of Richard Ekin Cumberbatch of 137 in a Japanese PoW Camp at:
http://homepage.ntlworld.com/bob.cumberbatch/Richard%20Cumberbatch.htm

List of Units serving in Malaya and Singapore in 1941 at:
http://malayacommand.blogspot.co.uk/2010/12/1941-december-royal-artillery-indian.html

Account of the Invasion of Burma and Singapore including key sites of 137 involvement at:
http://ww2db.com/battle_spec.php?battle_id=47

Account of the Invasion of Burma and Singapore including key sites of 137 involvement at:
ww2db.com/battle_spec.php?battle_id=47

Account of the movements of both 137 and 88 Fd Regt in Burma at:
http://www.britain-at-war.org.uk/WW2/Brigadier_EW_Goodman/html/malaya.htm

Accounts of the sinking of Japanese ships carrying 137 & 88 Regt’s PoWs and their rescue, with names at:
http://www.australian-pow-ww2.com/rakuyo_maru_26.html

Articles on the Burma Campaign at:
www.britain-at-war.org.uk/html/burma_compaign.htm

Articles and accounts of the ‘Fall of Singapore’ at:
www.britain-at-war.org.uk/WW2/Malaya_and_Singapore/index.htm

Film coverage of the invasion of Thailand and the ‘Fall of Singapore’ from the ‘World at War’ series Episode 6 ‘Banzai!: Japan (1931–1942)’ available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C6pNNAQmbmA

Building of the Thailand-Burma Railway at:
http://hellfire-pass.commemoration.gov.au/building-hellfire-pass/
AND: www.bbc.co.uk/history/ww2peopleswar/timeline/factfiles/nonflash/a1057619.shtml

Imperial War Museum article on the Sinking of PoW ships at:
www.iwm.org.uk/history/the-sinking-of-prisoner-of-war-transport-ships-in-the-far-east

Account of conditions on board PoW ship at:
http://www.fepow-community.org.uk/arthur_lane/html/sinking_of_the_lisbon_maru.htm

Prisoners accounts and experience at: www.captivememories.org.uk/

Permanent Exhibition at the National Memorial Arboretum, at: www.thenma.org.uk

Other Sources

Evening Gazettes of October 1945 giving details of returning PoWs and accounts of treatment, available at Central Library Blackpool.

War Diaries of 137 Regt at National Archives at Ref: WO 166/1549

Recorded interview: Payne, Harold Lloyd (IWM interview) Cat No: 4748.

Prisoners of war, Far East: 137th Field Regiment, Royal Artillery 1942 Jan 01 – 1945 Dec 31; at National Archive at Ref: WO 361/2095

A Brief summary of the ‘Fall of Singapore’ with sources and accounts related to tracing Far East PoWs: Gillies, M., 2012, in ‘The Fall of Singapore’ in Who Do You Think You Are? Magazine, March 2012, pp24-29

Images

Royal Artillery Cap Badge:  http://www.kentfallen.com/Kent%20Royal%20Artillery.html

Yorkshire Street Drill Hall:  Courtesy of http://www.rfca.mod.uk

Blackpool Recruits: Evening Gazette, 29/04/1952

Burma Peninsula Map: Courtesy of and adapted from Taylor, R., 2003 above.

A Wartime Tale

It’s Summer 1941, on St Anne’s Station. The 15.07 for Blackpool Central was late. The platform, in the past, busy with commuters, visitors and staff from the hotels and attractions of Blackpool, was now full of expectant, hopeful and highly hormonal young and youngish people. All are on a short excursion to all the Blackpool hot spots: Winter Gardens, the Tower, the Palace or any one of the many venues open for business. Men in and out of uniform, those in uniform qualify for free or heavily discounted entry and free drinks. A trip to Blackpool made a change from standing on the Prom at St Annes of an evening, watching the red sky of Blitz fires in Liverpool.

The platform crowd is made up of Brits, Poles, Czecs, Canadians, mainly Air Force. A year later Americans would compete for the Girls too. Those out of uniform are Civil Servants from Ministries, shipped into the Fylde from London, away from the menace of the Blitz. The females on the station are dressed in a variety of colours of ‘Sunday Best’ or just their ‘Best’. My Mum recalls dresses made from Grannies’ hand downs or even curtains, remodelled into fashionable, even desirable outfits in a time of scarce resources.

There were seven in Mum’s group, young men of around 18 years, including eldest brother, his mates and a couple of female friends. The mates included my Dad to be. The plan was to join the crowds on the Prom and then move to dancing and a pint or two. My 16 year old Mum being invited because she was a regarded as a ‘good’ dancer and is chaperoned by her elder Brother.

The group shared their expectations of the evening and their preferences for service in the Forces. The discussion, for that was what it was, rounded on the pro’s and con’s of joining the locally recruiting Unit, with the Royal Artillery.

Shortly after arriving at Central, four of the group virtually made their minds up. My Uncle, being a little more cautious, insisted that he should talk with his dad. He’s an essential member of his Dad’s shop. Sure enough, within days each, and together, they ‘joined up’. The brother did not.

The ‘Blackpool Regiment’ gathered them in. The 137 (Army) Field Regiment, Royal Artillery. A Territorial Army Unit, The Regimental HQ was in Blackpool, it had formed here in June 1939. Problems recruiting had meant that the local boys had been joined by Batteries formed in London, Yorkshire and other parts of Lancashire. In theory and until the War, Territorial Forces were designed and trained for home service, for protection of the Homeland.

RABadge

Royal Artillery Badge

Throughout 1940 and early 1941 the Blackpool Regiment trained in Cheshire, Liverpool and at the Royal Artillery Depot at Larkhill on Salisbury Plain. By Summer 1941 the Regiment was near full strength of around 700 men, and posted into the Order of Battle (Orbat) for protection of Singapore. They would join the 90,000 allied Force holding back the Japanese onslaught down the Burmese Peninsular.(See the Map at Appendix ‘A’). The Japanese at this time were eager to divest Britain of its Empire jewels in the Far East – Hong Kong and Singapore.

In September 1941 the Regiment embarked, via Liverpool, for Singapore on the 27,000 ton, ex-luxury Liner the ‘Dominion Monarch’. The 500+ berth New Zealand based Liner had been stripped out in 1939 to accommodate 3500 troops. She would eventually move 39,000 troops and casualties between the UK, the Far East and Africa through out the War, retiring to be scrapped, ironically, in Osaka, Japan.

137 Regiment arrived some 6 weeks later and immediately entrained for Kajang, near Kuala Lumpur, moving to Jitra Crossroads, on the Thai/Burma border. They were immediately in action. Within the month, in January 1942, the Force was split and cut off at the Slim River, the remnants of which were detached and distributed to other units. The British Forces undertook a ‘tactical withdrawal’ to Singapore from the beleaguered Malay Peninsula. The Japanese attacked the island of Singapore in February 1942, with initially, inferior numbers. Within a few days, General Percival, the General Officer Commanding had surrendered the island in a bid to minimise casualties and anticipating being overrun. (Map HERE Map of Singapore at the ‘Fall’ HERE)

Recriminations and analysis of the surrender has been a feature of the campaign and the role and fate of 137 Regiment and the Blackpool Boys often questioned. Following the surrender, the Japanese Troops were unable to police the island and used 1000 Brits in that role. However, these like the thousands of others found themselves in the hellish conditions in prison camps and jails for the duration. About a third of the Regiment perished in appalling conditions by violence and disease. The four from St Annes survived the War, two died soon after, 2 managed to raise a family and Grandchildren.

The brother joined the Royal Engineers, Bridging units in late 1943. He was to assault the beach on day 5 of the Normandy Landings in June 1944, attached to the Canadian Infantry, fighting in Caen, and later at Arnhem. He survived.

Apart from the personal experiences and memories, the legacy of the adventure for 137 Regt is writ large at St Johns Church, where several memorials testify to their service and sacrifice. (See a Blog Posting of those Memorials).

As a Post Script to the story, The Burma Star Association and the Far East Prisoners of War (FEPOW) draw inevitably to a close as the last surviving members who served, pass away. Indeed, in a last gesture of defiance against time, the Burma Star Association used the last of their assets on a new memorial unveiled and dedicated at the Fylde Memorial Arboretum, in August this year. The memorial includes a section of rail track representing those who died at the hands of Japanese, whilst building the Burma Railway.

MPC
Oct 2015

Acknowledgement

I am grateful to Ron Taylor for permission to use his excellent research, made available for this paper. www.far-eastern-heroes.org.uk

Note: The extraordinary story of the ‘Blackpool Regiment’ is planned and will be published on this site on its completion

Sources and further info:

A first class account of the extraordinary Burma Campaign can be found in
Keane, F., 2011, Road of Bones: the Battle for Kohima 1944, Harper Press.

Websites and Links

137 Regt Formation and equipment:
http://www.ra39-45.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/field/page137.html

Fall of Singapore:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/15/newsid_352900/3529447.stm

Forum Discussion:
http://ww2talk.com/forums/topic/42313-137-fd-regt-ra-blackpool-regt/

History of the Regiment:
http://www.far-eastern-heroes.org.uk/2nd_lt_robert_hartl/html/history_of_the_regiment.htm

Far East Prisoners of War (FEPOW):
http://www.far-eastern-heroes.org.uk/index.htm

Burma Star Association:
http://www.burmastar.org.uk/

Churchill’s Blackpool

Churchill in 1941

Pic by J Russell & Sons at: commons.wikimedia.org

Hero wartime Prime Minister, Sir Winston Spencer Churchill had a connection with Blackpool, which we can celebrate.

Nick Moore records that the connection started with Winston’s father, Lord Randolph Churchill, who had given a famous speech at Blackpool in January 1884, questioning the UK Government’s decision to send troops to Egypt to defend the Suez Canal.

In a speech in Blackpool in 1902, Churchill, then a Liberal MP in Lloyd George’s Government, Churchill recounted Rowntree’s 1901 book on Poverty, a terrible and shocking thing, people who have only the workhouse or prison as avenues to change from their present situation’. He had commented earlier: ‘I see little glory in an Empire which can rule the waves and is unable to flush its sewers’.

It was in 1924 that Sir Lindsay Parkinson, at the time Chairman of Blackpool Parliamentary Borough Conservative and Unionist Association, (based at the Wainwright Conservative Club, in Victoria Street), had written to Winston inviting him to stand for the constituency in the forthcoming October elections. Churchill declined the offer.

A regular visitor to the town and to the Imperial Hotel in particular, Lady Clementine and Winston enjoyed their stays, drawing large crowds on their arrival at and departure from the hotel. He is remembered at the hotel with affection and commemorated by the dedication of a function room, the ‘Churchill Room’.

In 1946, Churchill was invited to become an ‘Honorary Freeman of Blackpool’, joining the catalogue of great names holding the appointment: 1918 David Lloyd George; 1932 Earl of Derby; and later, in 1948, Field Marshall Sir Bernard Montgomery

By October of that year he was invested at a ceremony at the Winter Gardens, during the Conservative Conference. In a speech during the ceremony, Churchill extolled the virtues of a ‘United States of Europe’ and prompted the later closer association with the rest of Europe in an Economic Community. The speech reinforced an earlier one in Zurich when he promulgated a ‘United Europe’ to dispel the bitter feuds and quarrels of the past. The investiture and speech were reported all over the world.

Churchill was again in Blackpool In 1950. At that time, war was raging, with International military action to expel communists from Korea. Churchill’s Blackpool Conference speech urged Europe to provide a European Army to defend the west from the Soviet Union. Domestically, he was concerned that the Labour Government spending programme was ‘irresponsible’ and argued that Nationalisation of Iron and Steel Industries ‘would see the demise of Trade Unions’ and confirmed that Conservatives would build 300,000 houses a year.  It seems that the issues of the past are issues of the present.

In 2008 the Gazette reported that six discs of recordings of the Investiture speech found their way into a Charity Shop in Poulton. They were handed to the then Mayor of Blackpool, Councillor Robert Wynne. The Gazette report stated that the speech closed with Churchill thanking the people of Blackpool:

“I shall carry away from Blackpool the most delightful memories and tell any descendants I may have in future years that I was once welcomed here with open arms.”

MPC
Sept 2015

Sources and Additional information Links:

Nick Moore’s Blackpool Chronology
Churchill Archive
American Newspaper Investiture reports: and  HERE
Blackpool Gazette report on finding of speech discs:
Churchill’s 1946 speech film
Conservative Party Speech Archive
Churchill Collector website
Rowntree’s reference
List of Honorary Freemen of Blackpool

The Churchill Museum
The Churchill Museum entry of the ‘United States of Europe’ speech
Short Biography of Winston S Churchill

Texts:
Rowntree, B.S., (1901) Poverty: A Study in Town Life, Macmillan & Co

Gibson, M., (2011) Winston Churchill – The Wilderness Years: Speaking Out Against Hitler in the Prelude to War, Tauris Parke Paperbacks (London). Accessed 11/09/2015. Available via Google Books HERE