Blackpool’s links with Malta.

I recently had a short holiday in Malta. Our excursions included a boat trip round the Grand Harbour in Valletta. Our attention was drawn to the strategic importance of the island and the number of invasions and sieges suffered by the Maltese by foreigners. From the early 1800s the British were the custodians of the island and the champions of the Mediterranean, having wresting occupation from the French by a Royal Navy blockade.  A short review of the history of Malta reveals a couple of unexpected links with Blackpool.

HMS Foudroyant

HMS Foudroyant, was wrecked on the beach by North Pier in 1897. Her story includes action and almost destruction at Valletta, Malta, whilst she was the Flagship of Admiral Horatio Nelson.

The French had captured Malta with a relatively small Expeditionary force in 1798, as a prelude to the capture of Egypt. Malta was of strategic importance as a staging post for Napoleon Bonapart’s aspirations of a threat to Britain’s presence in North Africa and ultimately in India.  The French sent a large force to capture Egypt and were pursued by a small British Naval force that included Foudroyant. Thus started what became known as the ‘Mediterranean Campaign’. The ‘Battle of the Nile’ proved decisive for Nelson and following it he was able to release ships to eliminate the French from Malta.  Foudroyant was one of a force of seven British ships sent to Blockade the Island in February 1799.


Figure 1.  Robert Dodd’s ‘The Capture of the Guillaume Tell’ by HMS Foudroyant (in the background) and HMS Penelope (in white sails)

The French attempted to break the Blockade in 1800 with a significant convoy of supplies and warships. The British squadron intercepted them and eventually the French surrendered, although the French Garrison on the island survived another few months, Malta surrendered in September 1800.

During the battle to destroy the French convoy, Foudroyant was badly damaged, so much so that she was put under tow for repairs to Syracuse, Sicily. She would be back in service by February 1801. Nelson was not on board during the Battle, he had been taken to Palermo in Sicily with heart problems.  As a measure of her involvement during the action, she had used:

161 barrels of gunpowder, together with
1200 x 32lb Shot  (Cannon Balls)
1240 x 20lb Shot,
100 x 18lb Shot
200 x 12lb Shot.

Incidentally, as shown in the engraving above, ‘HMS Penelope’ was also involved in the same action, receiving a medal for doing so.  A later incarnation of the ‘Penelope’ is also associated with Blackpool and Malta.

HMS Penelope


Figure 2.  HMS Penelope in the Grand Harbour, Valletta.

There is another direct link with Malta in the resting place of known servicemen recorded on the Malta Memorial or buried on the island; together with the many Blackpool men who served and died in the seas around Malta between 1940 and 1942, when the Germans and Italians attempted to dislodge the British from this strategic stronghold. During the siege, the island, its ports, towns and installations were badly damaged by bombardment by air and sea, with significant loss of life. The Maltese population were awarded the George Cross. The citation read ‘to bear witness to the heroism and devotion of its people’

As early as 1938, Mussolini had intended taking the island from the British.  A little later, lack of supplies and fuel, together with a number of Naval defeats caused Italian military planners to suspend their plans.

Recognising the Islands importance to the Allies, Britain developed the defences and reinforcements in order to disrupt the enemy supplies for North Africa and the Mediterranean in general. The Grand Harbour in Valletta provided a suitable base for those activities.

Among the ships sent to defend support and strengthen the island was ‘HMS Penelope’. HMS Penelope was a ‘Light Cruiser’ warship, built by Harland & Wolff, in Belfast.  In 1941, a successful ‘Warship Week’ National Savings campaign led to its adoption by the population of Blackpool. She was referred to in the local press as ‘Blackpool’s Battleship’.  As mentioned earlier she was the second ship to bear the name, the first being part of Nelsons Squadron alongside HMS Foudroyant during the ‘Siege of Malta’ in 1799 to 1800.

This ship was to achieve a great reputation during operations in Norway in 1940 and patrol and convoy escort operations in the Mediterranean between 1941 and 1942 and later in the support of the Allied landings at Salerno in 1943 & Anzio in 1944.


Figure 3.  ‘Pepperpot’ damage to HMS Penelope, June 1942.

To some extent she enjoyed a reputation as a ‘Lucky’ an accident prone ship, just like the Foudroyant, with a number of periods out of service undergoing repairs and bearing many battle scars. She was often referred to as ‘HMS Pepperpot’ in recognition of the holes in her structure from enemy action.  At one time she managed to plug holes from enemy gunfire and shrapnel by plugging them with wedges of wood, giving her the appearance and nickname of ‘HMS Porcupine’.

Nevertheless, her war service details are testament to a busy and successful time defending Malta and disrupting the Axis convoys and supporting operations throughout the Mediterranean. On return to Naples to restock with ammunition and supplied she was sunk with all hands (415, incl the Captain) following a submarine attack in February 1944. There were 250 survivors.

One of the casualties was ex Blackpool Grammar Schoolboy ALFRED JOHN BROOK, son of Cyril and Kathleen May Brook of Bloomfield Road, from Waterloo Juniors in 1936 until 1941.   He was 18 and is remembered on the Plymouth Naval Memorial.

There is a memorial to HMS Penelope in St Johns Church, Blackpool along with a Roll of Honour book with the names of the Officers and crew of the ship. A Penelope Association was also formed by survivors. Blackpool also has  also has links with the Blackpool Sea Cadet unit ‘TS Penelope’ at Bispham, the name reflecting the Blackpool link.  The Blackpool branch of the Royal Naval Association (RNA) met in the ‘Penelope Mess’ at the Stretton Hotel on North Promenade, although the RNA in Blackpool no longer exists.

Incidentally, there are two additional claims to fame, according to Wikipedia: CS Forester’s book ‘The Ship’, published in 1943 is dedicated to HMS Penelope as follows, “with the deepest respect to the officers and crew of HMS Penelope“.  The Politician and ex-Defence Secretary (2019), Penny Maudaunt is named after The ‘Penelope’.

On a purely personal note, my father’s best friend from St Anne’s, served on HMS Laforey, a Destroyer, in World War 2 . Laforey too was engaged in operations in support of Malta. During which she was involved in the infamous ‘Op Pedestal’, a British operation to re-supply Malta in August 1942. The story includes the amazing account of ‘SS’ Ohio, the aircraft fuel tanker, that limped into Valletta after being bombed and strafed. Like Penelope in Blackpool, Laforey had been adopted by the population of Northampton in November 1941. She too was sunk by a submarine north east of Sicily with the loss of all hands (189, incl the Commanding Officer) on 30 March 1944, my father’s 21st Birthday.

Jan 2017



The story of Foudroyant 1799 – 1812 at:

Siege of Malta (1798 -1800) at:

The history of HMS Penelope at:

HMS Penelope Casualty List at:

HMS Penelope Association at:

HMS Laforey Casualty List at:

The story of Op Pedestal and the SS Ohio at:

Wikipedia entry at:


Gordon, E., 1985,  H.M.S. “Pepperpot!”: The “Penelope” in World War Two, Robert Hale Ltd

Ellis, J., 2013, Blackpool at War: A History of the Fylde Coast during the Second World War, The History Press


Fig 1.  Capture of the ‘Guillaume Tell’ off Valletta, March 1798 (HMS Penelope is with the White sails, Foudroyant in the background at:

Fig 2.  HMS Penelope at Valletta at:

Fig 3.  Pepperpot damage at:


Foudroyants Legacy at:

Retaining Heritage: Foudroyant’s Legacy

For sale on Ebay: ‘A Medallion With A Blackpool Connection’.  What on earth is the story behind this token of Blackpool’s maritime heritage?

Indeed, there’s more!  A cupboard and chair made from Foudroyant’s timbers; Walking Sticks; Copper plates and watch fobs; pictures and cards; news articles, paintings, photos and prints, all at surprising prices and available from all over the World.

The message from these adverts is two-fold. On the one hand, the fact that these items are for sale, on the other, at least the memory of Foudroyant lives on, through these artefacts, as does the connection with Blackpool.

Investigation of the connection starts as usual with a look at local newspapers and of course, and internet search.

So what did we find out?

What was the ‘Foudroyant’? 

In fact there were two ‘Foudroyants’. The one with the Blackpool and memorabilia connections is ‘HMS Foudroyant’. Built in Plymouth and launched there in 1798; she was an 80 Gun, ‘Full Rigged’ warship, a sister ship to HMS Caesar and named after the French ship, bearing the same name, captured in 1758 during the ‘Seven Years War’ with France and Spain, during the blockade of the Spanish Port of Cartegena. The name is derived from the French for ‘Thunderbolt’.

HMS Foudroyant had a somewhat chequered service, despite service during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, including a three year spell stationed on the River Plate, in Rio de Jeneiro; action in Egypt; Royal visits; Troop Transport; roles as ‘Flagship’; punctuated by long periods in dock for repairs, or service as a Tender or Guard Ship. She was decommissioned in 1812. In her later years she was a Gunnery Training ship and a Naval Training ship. An attached annexe ‘A’ gives details the service history of the Foudroyant. It’s most celebrated role was as Nelson’s ‘Flagship’ from June 1799 until 1800.

In June 1891 she was put on to the Navy’s ‘Sales List’. Bought by J Read of Portsmouth for £2350 and quickly resold to German Shipbreakers, who promptly started dismantling the upper decks,  prompting protests in the press and at the highest levels in the UK. Arthur Conan Doyle resorted to poetry and ‘Punch’ magazine published a follow-up piece ridiculing the Royal Navy decision to sell off the ship.

She was re-bought at a cost of £6,000 and brought to London eventually by Mr Geoffrey Wheatly Cobb, with a plan to redevelop the Foudroyant as a Boys Training Ship, at a cost of £20,000. In order to recoup costs of refurbishment to original design, the ship was to be exhibited at Seaside resorts.

By 1896 the Foudroyant, ‘Nelsons Flagship’ was on tour, carrying a crew of 27, 20 of who were Boy Sailors. On 11 June 1897 lay off Blackpool Promenade, between North and Central Piers, about a mile out. The Gazette & News reported the ‘Man-o-War’ ‘framed in a sea of glass, which was only broken by the fussy passenger steamers’. All setting the scene, for what was to be a short season of attraction for the visitors at Blackpool and an opportunity for Mr Cobb to make a contribution to the running costs of the venture.  The article went on to describe the visit to the ship by the local dignitaries, leaving North Pier in the ‘Clifton’. Commodore G.L. Seed, the Chief Constable and Mr J.L. Smith all munching on chocolate ice cream.

Entry to the ship was a shilling, the Boy Sailors provided a band playing nautical ditties. On the 15th a new venture was tried – Dancing on the upper Deck, by all accounts a great success, promising a lucrative visit to Blackpool, for the owner.

Foudroyant doomed!

On the evening of the 15th , the weather was fine, albeit with a sprinkling of fine rain, but nothing to keep the crowds away.

By 4am on the 16th a rapidly developing storm had blown up, almost ‘out of the blue’. By 6am a ‘an iron chain as thick as a man’s wrist’ had snapped in the weight of the wind and sea, pushing the Foudoyant on to the beach, approximately in line with the end of North Pier, in just 14ft of water. The force of repeatedly ‘bumping’ on the beach, with the ebb and flow of the tide, causing her hull to breach in places, snapping masts and tearing sails,. Now on her side and flooded, about 600 yards offshore she rolled and writhed in the storm tide, which was now ‘sweeping over the Sea Front’.

The Owner and Crew were still on board. At 09.00am they hoisted a Distress Signal and the Samuel Fletcher II was brought from the Lifeboat house on Lytham Road, harnessed up and towed up the Promenade, now crowded by sightseers. The launch was further hampered by waiting for the tide to turn. She launched into a wild surf at 1pm, four hours after being called. Eventually battling through debris, rigging and broken timbers, the ‘Samuel Fletcher’ struggled to stay on station, but managed to scoop all to safety. The full complement of twenty seven and Mr Wheatley Cobb were rescued and brought to shore at about 2.30pm, under the gaze of excited crowds on the Promenade.

image005The following day, the damage was clear. It was possible to climb into the mud caked and battered hulk via a hole created by one of the 32 Pounder guns, which had broken loose on the lower deck. The upper deck was strewn with timber, planking and guns wrenched from their carriages. Nevertheless, the crew attempted to gather their belongings left their in the hurry of escape. One managed to retrieve his Concertina, before the incoming tide of the 18 June washed over her.

image006By the 19th June, prompted by the enterprising efforts of Blackpool’s Marketing Manager, visitors from all over the north were filling trains to see the spectacle and the resort. It hadn’t been a good season until the wreck. The Queens Jubilee year had kept folk at home

Losses for Cobb were estimated at £30,000 and there was no insurance cover. Already there was talk of the value of the remaining hulk and options available: perhaps sold piecemeal- guns, timber, etc. or made watertight and retained as tourist attraction. The Directors of North Pier had a more pragmatic approach; they sought an injunction to have the wreck removed, since if it broke away or broke up further it would pose a hefty threat to the pier structure. By mid July, Foudroyant’s fate was sealed. Cobb had agreed with a Clyde based salvage company to re-float the wreck and tow it away for dismantling. Progress was being made, however, the Foudroyant was not finished yet.

A steam tug, the ‘Anna’, employed to by the salvage company found itself in difficulties during another freak storm and had pulled away from the Foudroyant to anchor offshore to ride out the squall. She was carrying ropes and some of the guns from Foudroyant, with the weight of the wind and tide, she slipped her anchor and drifted to shore. Deluged, she was unable to operate pumps and steam engines and eventually only the mast was visible in the swell. The crew had been taken off by off duty fishermen using a pleasure boat.

The following morning debris and wreckage were strewn along the North beach

In front of the ever present crowds on the North Promenade, another salvage attempt was made in mid August. The ‘Aurora’, a trim, neat 300 Tonner arrived to restart operations, loading more guns, ropes and rigging, timbers and artefacts from HMS Foudroyant. The Aurora was tethered to her broadside and as the tide increased, her moorings gave way and she broke free, bobbing precariously in the swell rolling heavily with every wave until she hit one of the beach banks, rapidly filling with water. As the tide rolled in she was battered against the Sea Wall.  Another thrilling spectacle for the Blackpool crowds.

On the 20 August, the Gazette reported ‘Never has there been a season in which exciting incidents have been so plentiful’

Exciting, but also dangerous. There were a number of accidents involving people getting close to the Foudroyant, and reported in the Gazette: a sailor fell from the wreck; a cannon ball fell from the deck injuring a Policeman and the tragic death of a bystander, reported later in this piece. Latterly, crowds were kept away from the wreck, initially to stop looting, later to reduce risk of injury. However, the Blackpool phenomena of any opportunity to make a shilling, was not to be thwarted and many stands were established close by selling all manner of goods and services.

Now what about those Ebay artefacts, souvenirs and museum pieces? 


Display Case from Foudroyant’s timber

By November of 1897, The Foudroyant was in the hands of Mr Michael Hayhurst of Birkenhead, for just £700. Demolition was planned using Dynamite, however, the weather and tide continued its toll on the ship. Until in August of 1898 more misfortune beset the Foudroyant when, Hayhurst and his young son set charges to demolish the ship. During the explosion a large fragment of wood and copper sailed through the air and caught a female visitor, killing her instantly.

Eventually, the salvageable oak timbers, copper sheeting and bolts from the ship were sold to Cabinet Maker Robert Fletcher of Talbot Road.  The Copper Sheeting from the Hull of Foudroyant was made into many souvenirs, including medals.  In 1901 the Oak was sold on to a Manchester Company: Goodhall, Lamb and Heighway where the oak was turned into furniture. As early as 1899, newspaper report told of the removal and installation of Foudroyants staircase into what was Jenkinsons Café (on the site of what became ‘Rumours’, on Talbot Road). Many of Foudroyant’s artefacts are held at the Nelson Museum, Monmouth. The panelling from the Captain’s Cabin is reputed to have lined the Board Room at Blackpool Football Club.

There are also two paintings of the wreck and its aftermath, one at the Nelson Museum and one held by the Messel Family at ‘Nymans’, a National Trust property in West Sussex. Local resident presented a painting by Charles Simpson to the Borough Library & Galleries Committee, which is still there.

The name ‘Foudroyant’ lives on too in the Training Ship. In 1903 HMS Trincomalee was renamed TS Foudroyant, after the ship she replaced. She remained in service as TS Foudroyant until 1986, after which she was again restored and renamed back to TS Trincomalee in 1992.  Billed as the oldest warship afloat anywhere in the world’, she is berthed at Hartlepool’s Maritime Museum.

Nov 2016

Sources and Further Reading

Acknowledgement:  This piece has been constructed from materials gathered by Tony Sharkey at Blackpool Local and Family History Centre at Blackpool Central Library. Without his help this work would have been made difficult.

Where possible, images are included under ‘Creative Commons’ licences

Foudroyant on the Beach – Unknown author, Gazette image

Wreck of HMS ‘Foudroyant’, Blackpool, 1897 at:

Foudroyant Medal, by the Author

Cabinet from Fourdroyant Oak, Nelson Museum, Monmouth by John Cummings at:

Paintings of the Wreck of the Foudroyant at:

Newspaper Reports

Sailor falls from Foudroyant:
Blackpool Times, 1897, ‘A remarkable number of accidents’, 01/09, p2 col 8

Loss of Aurora and plans for disposal of Foudroyant:
Blackpool Times, 1897, ‘Our latest wreck; and the next’, 21/08, p5 col 6

Court case:
Times, 1897, ‘The Advertising on the Foudroyant’, 04/08, p2 col 9

Fate of Foudroyant:
Blackpool Times. 1897, (Editorial comment), 17/07, p4 col 6

Preserving of Foudroyant:
Blackpool Times, 1897, (Editorial comment), 07/07, p5 col 4

Blackpool Times, Goulden, J., 1897, ‘Lines on the wreck of the Foudroyant’, 30/06, p3 col 9

Ladies Swim to Foudroyant:
Blackpool Times, 1897, (Editorial comment), 23/06, p5 col 1

Danger to North Pier:
Blackpool Times, 1897, ‘What will become of her?’, 23/06, p5 col 1

Account of the loss of Foudroyant:
Blackpool Times, 1897, (Several headings with picture), 19/06, p8 cols1-6

Newspaper coverage and a poem:
Blackpool Gazette & News, 1897, ‘Our wreck editions’ & ‘Ode to the Foudroyant’,  22/06, p3 col 1

Disposal of the Foudroyant wreck:
Blackpool Gazette & News, 1897, ‘What of the ‘Foudroyant’?’’, & Her owners intentions’, ‘Value of the vessel’, 22/06, p3 col1

Visit to the ship:
Blackpool Gazette & News, 1897, ‘With Lord Nelson’; ‘On board ‘Foudroyant’’, 11/06, p5 col 6

Account of the loss of Foudroyant:
Blackpool Gazette & news, 1897, (Several Headings), 18/06, p8 cols 1-8

Presentation of a Painting:
Blackpool Gazette & Herald, 1943, ‘Foudroyant for the Art Gallery’, 24/07, p1 col 2

Foudroyant’s cable found:
Blackpool Gazette & Herald, 1925, ‘A Nelson relic’ (with pic), 24/02, p7 col 4-6

Foudroyant Supplement:
Blackpool Gazette & Herald, 1921, ‘About our special Supplement’, 13/12, p6 cols 3-6

Staircase to Jenkinsons Café:
Blackpool Gazette, 1899, ‘Jenkinsons developments’, 25/08,  p2 col6

Foudroyant fatality:
Blackpool Gazette, 1898, ‘Foudroyant Fatality: a day trippers sad end whilst watching the ships’, 19/08, p3 col 3

Story of the Foudroyant:
Blackpool Gazette, 1897,‘Story of the ‘Foudroyant’’, 30/11, p3 col 1-4

Wreck of the ‘Anna’:
Blackpool Gazette, 1897, ‘Another Shipwreck The salvage steamer swamped’, 30/07, p8 col 3

Wreck of the ‘Anna’:
Blackpool Gazette, 1897, ‘Another wreck’’, 20/08, p6 col 6

Wreck of the ‘Anna’
Blackpool Times, 1897, ‘Our latest wreck’, 21/08, p5 col 6


The literary response to the sale of HMS Foudroyant in :
Doyle, A.C., 1892: The Fighting ‘Foudroyant’, in Peschel B., (et al), 2014, The Early Punch Parodies of Sherlock Holmes’,  Peschel Press,  Available at: Google Books

Short account of the Lifeboat rescue in :
Morris, J., 2002, Blackpool Lifeboats, Lifeboat Enthusiasts’ Society, Coventry

Our Shipwreck Heritage: Tragedies, Rescues & Profit


The Fylde Coast Shipwreck Memorial, Cleveleys. Photo by the Author.

When writing his ‘History of Blackpool’ back in 1837, Thornber included reference to the shipwrecks along the coast. He commented that ‘…a full list of them would be a very big one’. Indeed, it is recorded that he put his pen down to observe a ship in difficulties off Bispham (Clarke, 1910). After the incident, he was to be instrumental in raising awareness of the need to provide Blackpool with a Lifeboat.

Whilst records and reports clearly feature the ‘celebrity’, wrecks: Mexico (1886), Abana (1894), Foudroyant (1897), Riverdance (2008). There are however, other notable events recorded – the 12 vessels lost in a storm in 1833; the loss of Lifeboats and their crews in 1852 and 1886; and the loss of the Fleetwood Ferry in 1863, fully laden with passengers. We would be relieved to find that all but the Ferryman were saved. There are also 11 vessels listed as ‘Unidentified’, as indeed are, those lost also remain ‘Unidentified’.

The research for this paper included producing a comprehensive list of the 170+ serious incidents and multiple life loss recorded since before 1700. The list will be available at Blackpool’s Central Library.

The list testifies to the fishing families as the main rescuers before RNLI intervention. The list also indicates the volume of traffic along, to & from the Fylde Coast. The cargo types show the dependence of the Fylde area on sea traffic. This coupled with the Shipbuilding and dock facilities at Freckleton, Lytham, Grannies Bay (Fairhaven), as well as at Fleetwood.

‘Those Infernal Banks’ and unpredictable weather, have contributed to the likelihood of disaster. Mayes (2000, p105-108) illustrates the shifting of the banks over a period 1885 to 1919, only adding to the unpredictable nature of sailing this coast. The decline of the ports, legislation, advent of the RNLI and predictable weather have mitigated risks and reduced casualties.

Mention must also be made of the War time rescues, reflecting aircraft ditchings of operational and training flights from the 3 airfields in area. Other wartime records not recorded here are those of Fleetwood Trawlers lost in service and recorded on the ‘Real Price of Fish’ Memorial in Fleetwood Museum. Post war launchings have been directed to mainly leisure craft and people rescues. Fleetwood and fishing all along the coast might have provided Vessel names in the list but there are surprisingly few.

Wrecks are defined in law in Section 255 of the Merchant Shipping Act 1995, they include the debris of wrecks “jetsam, flotsam, lagan and derelict found in or on the shores of the sea or any tidal water”. Prior to the 1854 Merchant Shipping Act and the appointment of the ‘Receiver of Wrecks’ to protect them from theft, ‘Wrecking’ was seen as contributing to the good fortune and economy of those who lived round the coast. Occasionally, locals enticed ships to founder on banks and shore, in order to pillage their cargo’s. Whilst there is no evidence of that on this coast, in 1839 three Marton men were convicted of theft of silk from the stricken ‘Crusader’. In contrast, there are records of the relief felt by locals when the ‘Happy’ foundered in 1779 providing a bounty of peas to locals suffering from famine at the time.


Coin made from Copper plating of the ‘Foudroyant’. Photo by the Author.

Other commercial opportunities were presented by these wrecks. Enterprising businessmen were able to bid for the carcasses of a wreck to make money from them. Souvenirs like that on the right, cast from the copper from the hull of Foudroyant (wrecked June,1897) and furniture made from the timber, found their way in to shops and market stalls in the town, for the ‘benefit’ of the tourists.

The List also testifies to the bravery of Lifeboats’ Crews in those early years, in open, oar driven boats; often in appalling conditions. A ship in difficulties used flairs to summon help. If help came, it had to come via horse drawn trailers to the sea. There are occasions when it took hours to gather the horses and launch the Lifeboat from points along the coast, not just from the Lifeboat stations. Crew were mainly drawn from local Fishermen, who may have been out fishing at the time of the call.

The Sources used in the research, derive from the internet, local newspapers, the Cleveleys Shipwreck Memorial and historical accounts of the Lifeboat Stations of St Annes, Blackpool and Fleetwood. In one or two cases the author recalls conversations with his Grandfather about adventures of his great grandfather, a crew member and later Coxswain of the St Annes Lifeboat, Henry Melling.

A table is available HERE showing many of the Wrecks on the Fylde Coast.

Our Wreck Heritage offers many more fascinating stories yet to be told and ‘facts’ to be confirmed for someone in the future. My hope is that this article serves as a prompter to that research.

Dec 2013

Sources & Bibiography

Clarke, A., 1910, The Story of Blackpool Lifeboat: a record of Stormwrecks and Rescues on the Fylde Coast, Teddy Ashton Printing Co.

Forshaw, D., 1992, On those Infernal Ribble Banks,: A record of Lytham St Annes Lifeboats, British Aerospace.

Mayes G.I. & J.E., 2000, On Broad Reach: The history of the St Annes on the Sea Lifeboat Station, Bernard McCall, Bristol.

Morris, J., 1981, Blackpool Lifeboat: A Souvenir History, McMillan (Agent for Blackpool RNLI)

Rothwell, C., 2008, Shipwrecks of the North West Coast, The History Press,

Thornber, W. 1985, The History of Blackpool and Its Neighbourhood, The Blackpool and Fylde Historical Society. First published 1937.

Web Bibliography:

Wood, M & J., 1995, ‘A Tale of Two Shipwrecks’, available at: accessed 12 Dec 2013

Shipwrecks Memorial, Cleveleys, available at:, accessed 12 Dec 2013

Wikipedia at:, accessed 12 Dec 2013

Stories and Photo’s available at: accessed 12 Dec 2013

The loss of Fleetwood Lifeboat available at:, accessed 14 Dec2013

Fleetwood Lifeboat available at: , accessed 14 Dec 2012

Losses in Morecambe Bay available at: Accessed 15 Dec 2013